Dr DENIS MUKWEGE YASABYE URUKIKO MPUZAMAHANGA MPANABYAHA RWA LA HAYE (CPI) KWEGERANYA IBIMENYETSO KU BYAHA BY’UBUSHOTORANYI BIBERA MU BURASIRAZUBA BWA CONGO BIKORWA N’U RWANDA


Ubwo yibutsaga intambara z’ubushotoranyi zikorwa n’ibihugu by’u Rwanda n’u Bugande mu burasirazuba bwa Congo, Dr Denis Mukwege yasabye Umushinjacyaha mukuru w’Urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha rwa La Haye gushyira muri gahunda y’ibyo akora kandi byihutirwa icyo kibazo.

Dr Denis Mukwege, umunyekongo wahawe igihembo cy’amahoro kitiriwe Nobeli, yabwiye Umushinjacyaha Mukuru wa CPI ko amahano abera mu burasirazuba bwa Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo (RDC) arenze imitekerereze n’imyumvire ya muntu, kandi ko ari kuba buri munsi isi irebera ntacyo yitayeho, ndetse ababikora bakaba batabihanirwa, umuco wo kudahana ukaba warahawe intebe.

Ibi Dr Denis Mukwege yabitangaje kuri uyu wa 17 Nyakanga 2022, mu muhango wo kuzirikana umunsi mpuzamahanga ku butabera mpuzamahanga  mpanabyaha, umunsi ushingiye ku ishyirwaho ry’Amasezero ya Roma yashyizeho urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha rwa La Haye (CPI/ICC).

Yagize ati: « Mu gihe gisaga icya kane cy’ikinyejana, Congo yabaye isibaniro ry’intambara z’ubushotoranyi zikozwe n’ibihugu binyuranye cyane cyane u Rwanda, Ubugande n’Uburundi; ndetse ko ibyo bihugu bikomeje kurema no gukoresha imitwe y’abarwanyi itandukanye yirirwa isahura umutungo kamere n’amabuye y’agaciro bya Congo ».

Yakomeje avuga ko bikwiye kwibutsa abantu bose bireba ko ubwicanyi ndengakamere n’ibindi byaha bikorerwa mu burasirazuba bwa Congo, aribyo bimaze guhitana abantu benshi cyane nyuma y’abahitanywe n’intambara ya 2 y’isi yo muri 1945.

Abapfuye hamwe n’abahohitewe biganjemo abagore bafatwa ku ngufu, ndetse n’abataye ibyabo, babarirwa mu mamiliyoni. Kuri we uyu mwuka w’intambara n’amakimbirane wabaye karande mu gace k’igihugu cya Congo, utesha agaciro ikiremwa muntu , ndetse bigatera ihungabana rikomeye mu baturage ba Congo.

Uyu Dr Denis Mukwege ni umwe mubaharanira bikomeye ko ibyavuye muri Raporo MAPPING yakozwe n’impuguke z’Umuryango w’abibumbye ku byaha byakorewe muri Congo, yasohotse muri 2010 bishyirwa mu bikorwa. Iyi Raporo MAPPING igaragaza ku buryo bufututse ahantu harenga 617 hakorewe amahano y’ubwicanyi hagati ya 1993 na 2003, ababikoze n’uko byakozwe, ikanashimangira ko urukiko rufite ububasha rushobora kubyemeza nk’ibyaha bya jenoside. Ashingiye kuri iyi raporo, Dr Denis Mukwege vuga rero ko nta wakwihandagaza ngo avuge ko atazi ibyabereye kandi bikomeje kubera muri RDC.

Yabishimangiye agira ati: « Ibyo byaha ndengakamere birakomeje ubutaretsa, mu gihe intumwa z’umuryango w’abibumbye ziri mu butumwa bw’amahoro muri RDC mu gihe kirenga imyaka 20, zihugiye gusa gutanga amaraporo ya buri munsi, buri kwezi, buri mwaka kuba abagwa muri izo ntambara zikorwa mu ihonyorwa ry’indengakamere z’uburenganzira bwa muntu n’amategeko mpuzamahanga biranga ubuzima bwa buri munsi bw’abaturage ba Congo. Yibutsa ariko ko ibyo byaha bidasaza kandi ko bitagomba gukomeza kureberwa ababikora batabihanirwa harimo n’abiyita M23 bashyigikiwe n’u Rwanda».

Yanavuze kandi ko imyaka isaga 20 ishize Amasezerano mpuzamahanga ashyiraho urukiko mpanabyaha rwa La Haye yashyiriweho umukono i Roma ariho, nyamara ko mu byaha byabereye muri Congo, hamaze guhanwa gusa abantu batatu bo mu mitwe yitwaje intwaro ku byaha byakorewe mu ntara ya Ituri.

Akomeza ashimangira ko yizeye neza ko Leta ya Congo, ari nayo ifite inshingano y’ibanze yo gukurikirana no guhana ibyaha byakorewe kandi bikomeje gukorerwa ku butaka bwayo, izagira icyo ikora mu maguru mashya igashyiraho urwo rukiko, cyangwa se igasaba ko umuryangompuzamahanga urushyiraho.

Kuri we, ahamya ko n’ubwo Leta ya Congo ifite ubushake mu gucira imanza abasirikare bakora ibyaha, hatarakorwa ibihagije ngo umuco wo kudahana waranze ibyaha bikorerwa muri Congo ucike.  Ari nayo mpamvu asaba akomeje ibiro by’Umushinjacyaha Mukuru wa CPI/ICC gukomeza amaperereza ku bice by’intara zabaye isibaniro, cyane muri Kivu zombi, no gushyiraho bidatinze ingamba zo gukurikirana abafite uruhare bose muri ayo mahano  abera ku butaka bwa Congo.

Agaruka ku nama yateranye yiga ku gukurikirana abafite uruhare mu ikorwa ry’ibyaha mu ntambara ibera muri Ukraine yashojwe n’Uburusiya, iyo nama ikaba yabereye La Haye mu Buholandi mu cyumweru gishize, yashimangiye ko igihe kigeze cyo guca umuco wo guha agaciro ubumuntu bw’abantu bamwe n’ahantu hamwe, abandi ntibitabweho, akibaza itandukaniro riri hagati y’uburenganzira bw’abanya Ukraine n’abanyekongo.

Kuri we, asanga iyo myitwarire itesha agaciro ikiremwamuntu, ikanatuma icyizere cy’abakongomani ku miryango mpuzamahanga kigenda gitakara.  Bituma kandi yibaza impamvu abakongomani bavutswa uburenganzira ku butabera, ku kubaho, ndetse no guhabwa indishyi nk’abandi baturage b’ibindi bihugu. Akomeza asaba kandi ko ugushimangira urugendo rw’ubutabera nyabwo, byajyana ko kuvugurura inzego zibishinzwe, kugirango ubugizi bwa nabi bucibwe burundu, habeho kandi igihugu kigendera ku mategeko, demokarasi n’amahoro mu mutima wa Afurika.

Tumenye icyaha cy’ubushotoranyi (Crime d’aggression)

Tugerageje kumvikanisha icyaha cy’ubushotoranyi (Crime  d’aggression), bisobanura itegurwa, itangizwa n’ishyirwa mu bikorwa ry’ibikorwa bya politike cyangwa ibya gisirikare  by’igihugu, bikozwe n’umuntu uri mu mwanya wo kuyobora no gutanga amabwiriza muri icyo gihugu; ibyo bikorwa bikaba byigaragaza ko bibangamiye ubusugire bw’ikindi gihugu mu buryo bunyuranije n’Amasezerano mpuzamahanga. Byumvikane neza ko icyaha cy’ubushotoranyi gishobora ku ibikorwa bya politike bibangamira ubusugire bw’ikindi gihugu, cyangwa se ibikorwa by’intambara bivogera ubusugire bw’ikindi gihugu cyangwa byombi.

Kwemeza umwanzuro ku cyaha cy’ubushotoranyi byaje nyuma y’ibiganiro bikomeye byabaye hagati y’amatariki ya 15 na 17 Ukuboza 2017 mu muryango w’Abibumbye. Ibihugu byashyize umukono ku masezerano ashyiraho urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha, bakaba baratangiye gutekereza ku guha inyito y’icyo cyaha mu nama yabereye i Kampala mu gihugu cy’Ubugande muri 2010.

Nyamara mu biganiro byabaye, habaye ukutumvikana ku kibazo cy’ububasha bwo gukurikira icyo cyaha no kukiburanisha bikozwe na CPI/ICC. Ibihugu bimwe byibazaga niba ubwo bubasha bwo kuburanisha bureba ibihugu byose byashyize umukono ku ishingwa ry’Urukiko mpanabyaha mpuzamahanga (CPI/ICC), cyangwa se bureba gusa bamwe mu banyamuryango bemera ububasha bw’urukiko kuri icyo cyaha gusa kandi bemeye ko kiba mu byaha biri mu bubasha bw’urwo rukiko.

Umwanzuro wo kwemeza ukubaho kw’icyo cyaha, washyizwe mu bikorwa kuwa 17 Nyakanga 2018 ubwo hizihizwaga ku nshuro ya 20 hashinzwe Urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha (CPI/ICC), ukaba ureba ibihugu byose byashyize umukono ku masezerano y’i Roma ashyiraho ruriya rukiko.

Ibi rero bikaba bisobanura ko TPI/ICC nta bubasha ishobora kugira bwo gukurikirana icyo cyaha cy’intambara y’ubushotoranyi ku bihugu by’ibinyamuryango cyangwa se ababikomokamo ariko bitashyize umukono kuri ariya masezerano y’inyongera yemeza kiriya cyaha, haba ku kuba igihugu cyakorewe icyaha cyaregera CPI/ICC cyangwa se amaperereza y’ikurikiranacyaha yatangijwe n’Umushinjacyaha Mukuru w’urukiko ku giti cye (enquête proprio motu)

Nyamara bongeraho ko Abacamanza ba CPI/ICC bafite ububasha busesuye n’ubwigenge bwo gufata ibyemezo ku bubasha bwo kuburanisha uregwa icyo cyaha uwo ariwe wese. Banavuga kandi ko no mu gihe ari ikibazo cyoherejwe cyangwa cyatanzwe n’Umuryango w’abibumbye, ubwo bubasha bwo kuburanisha budashingirwaho, kuko ONU ububasha bwayo butagira umupaka ku banyamuryango bayo.

Aha bishobora kumvikana ko ku bijyanye n’ububasha bwo kuburanisha abaregwa ibyaha by’ubushotoranyi, badakingirwa ikibaba n’uko batasinye ayo masezerano cyangwa se batari n’umunyamuryango wa CPI/ICC, ahubwo ko uwaregwa wese, abacamanza bafite inshingano zo gusuzuma niba yaburanishwa. Ibyo kandi bikaba byanashoboka mu gihe na l’ONU isabye ko uwakoze icyo cyaha yakurikiranwa.

Nk’uko bigaragazwa rero, icyaha cy’ubushotoranyi kinjiye ku rutonde rw’ibyaha mpuzamahanga by’ubugombe ndengakamere byemejwe ubwo hemezwaga amasezerano y’ishyirwaho ry’urukiko mpuzamahanga rwa La Haye (CPI/ICC). Ibyo byaha uko ari 4 rero ni icyaha cya jenoside, ibyaha by’intambara, ibyaha byibasiye inyoko muntu n’icyaha cy’ubushotoranyi (fourth ‘core’ crime). Ubu hakaba hari no gutekerezwa niba icyaha cyo gufata ku ngufu (Viol/rape) nk’intwaro y’intambara mu bihe by’amakimbirane n’intambara kitajya ku rutonde rw’ibyaha mpuzamahanga.

Ibi rero bikaba byarabaye ubwa mbere, nyuma y’urubanza rwa Nuremberg hamwe n’urubanza rw’ibyaha by’intambara bya Tokyo byabaye hagati ya 1945 na 1948 (WW II Trials), ko urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha rushobora kuburanisha abategetsi ku giti cyabo ku byaha birebana n’intambara z’ubushotoranyi ku bindi bihugu.

Twakwibutsa ko ibihugu 123 byasinye ku Masezerano y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ashyiraho Urukiko Mpuzamahanga Mpanabyaha, bita Statut de Rome de la Cour pénale internationale yo kuwa 17 Nyakanga 1998. Muri ibyo bihugu, 33 ni ibyo ku mugabane wa Afurika ariko u Rwanda rwanze gusinya ayo masezerano, rukaba rutemera urwo rukiko. Ibihugu 19 ni ibyo ku mugabane wa Aziya n’ibihugu biri mu nyanja ya Pasifika. Ibihugu 18 biri mu gice cy’Uburayi bw’Iburasirazuba, naho 25 bikaba ibyo mu Burayi bw’uburengerazuba, haza rero n’ibihugu 28 bibarizwa ku mugabane wa Amerika harimo igice cya Amerika Latine n’ibirwa bya Karayibe.

Ese aho Kagame Paul n’agatsiko ke kazahonoka ibi byaha?  Ese kazakomeza kwidegembya?

 Umunyarwanda yaciye umugani ngo birenge niwowe ubwirwa. U Rwanda rwagiye rurangwa n’ibikorwa byo kuvogera ku buryo bugaragara igihugu cya Congo ndetse rimwe na rimwe n’Uburundi. Mu gihe cy’izi ntambara zimaze imyaka irenga 25, hari ibimenyetso bidashidikanywaho byemeza nta shiti ko hakozwe ibyaha biri muri bya bindi 4 twavuze haruguru, kandi nk’uko Dr Denis Mukwege yabigarutseho, raporo Mapping yabivuye imuzingo, kandi n’ubu amaraporo arakorwa nubwo ashyirwa mu tubati.

Byanze bikunze, ibihe biha ibindi, kandi ngo ntagahora gahanze. Agatsiko kigaruriye u Rwanda kagize amahirwe atabonwa n’uwo ariwe wese yo gukingirwa ikibaba. Nyamara aho kubibyaza umusaruro kakomeje kwivuruguta mu byaha, nka wa mwana wuhagira akiyanduza. Ntabwo nshidikanya ko abagakigakigaga bakagakingira ikibaba batazageraho bakarambirwa, kuko biba bigoye gushyigikira udashoboye kumenya gusoma ibihe n’amateka.

Niba katisubiyeho, ibishoboka n’uko amahanga yahoraga agashyigikira azagakuraho amaboko, abanyarwanda bakakavudukana, cyangwa se n’amahanga akazakibasira, nk’uko bica amarenga mu ntambara kashoye mu karere cyane mu burasirazuba bwa Congo.

Ikirushijeho gutera inkeke, ni uko abagize ako gatsiko ka FPR Inkotanyi hamwe n’abambari bako biyemeje kukagwa inyuma, bazatoragurwa nk’uko interahamwe zahizwe, kandi byo si amakabyankuru kuko n’ubu hari abadashobora gutembera isi uko bashaka kandi bafite ubutegetsi.

Ni uko ngo amatwi arimo urupfu atumva, nyamara ntacyo abantu batakoze ngo bababurire, bareke abanyarwanda bahumeke. Ubwo rero nta kundi, ni ukwitegura imbaraga z’ubutabera kandi burakomanga.

Ese abanyarwanda twe birakwiye ko dukomeza kurebera?

Mu gusubiza icyi kibazo, ndifashisha amagambo yavuzwe n’umuhanga/umunyamategeko  Dr Charles Kambanda, akaba n’umunyarwanda utanga impanuro n’ibitekerezo ku bibazo by’abanyarwanda;  mu kiganiro yagize kuri Radio Itahuka n’umunyamakuru Serge Ndayizeye kuwa 16 Nyakanga 2022, aho yavuze ko bikwiye ko habaho itsinda (groupe) ry’abanyarwanda bagomba kwisuganya bagakora ibishoboka byose bakambura ubushobozi agatsiko ka FPR Inkotanyi kataramara abanyarwanda n’akarere.

Akomeza avuga ko abanyarwanda bose bagomba kumenya ko bugarijwe n’abagizi ba nabi, bityo buri muntu wese akiyumvamo ko ahamagariwe gukora ikintu cyose kiri mu bushobozi bwe kugirango yirwaneho, kandi anarwane ku gihugu cye. Ashimangira ko ku muntu wese utekereza neza; kuvanaho FPR ntibikiri choice (amahitamo) ahubwo ni inshingano ndakuka z’imyitwarire (obligation morale).

Kuri we, no mu madini ku basenga, bigeze aho kuvanaho FPR-Inkotanyi ari inshingano zishingiye ku kwemera (Faith), kubera ko nta muntu n’umwe wemera Imana kandi yahaye ubushobozi bwo gutekereza, wakwemera gushyigikira sekibi. Ashimangira rero ko FPR-Inkotanyi ari sekibi yaziye abanyarwanda n’akarere, bityo ko ari ishingano zishingiye ku kwemera, kuyirwanya, kandi iyo nshingano ikaza yiyongera ku nshingano zisanzwe za muntu mu bijyanye n’imyitwarire.

Dr Charles Kambanda avuga kandi ko atumva ukuntu umuntu muzima utekereza neza, yakwemera ko ikibi kiganza, ndetse kikagenga ubuzima bw’abantu. Akavuga kandi ko no kubemera Imana, mu bushake bwayo, itakwemera ko habaho sekibi ugira ingufu zigeze ku rwego rwo kurimbura abantu n’ibintu ubwayo yiremeye. Ari nabyo bisobanura ko biri no mu bushake bw’Imana ko hakorwa ibishoboka byose ngo Kagame n’ibyihebe bye byose bavanwe ku gakanu k’abanyarwanda no mu karere.

Asoza ashimangira neza ko ariyo mpamvu biri mu nshingano za buri mu nyarwanda wese, gukora ibyo ashoboye byose ngo hagaruke ituze mu banyarwanda bongere babane. Kuri we guhashya sekibi bizongera kugarura umuco wo guha  icyubahiro ubuzima wahozeho ariko mu Rwanda, nyamara ingoma ya sekibi FPR Inkotanyi ikaba  yarazanye ingengabitekerezo ko ubuzima ntacyo buvuze, ndetse ko igihe icyo aricyo cyose wabubura.  Bizagarura kandi umuco wo kuba no guha agaciro uburenganzira rusange bwa muntu, nabyo FPR Inkotanyi yamaze gukura mu mitwe y’abanyarwanda, izana ingengabitekerezo ko ntabwo bagira ahubwo ko ariyo ibubagenera, kandi ari nayo babukesha.

Aya magambo y’uru muhanga, ahuye kandi akuzuza ubutumwa impirimbanyi nyinshi zigenda zigarukaho muri iyi nkundura ya REVOLUTION, aho ubutumwa bwibanda ku bumwe bw’abanyarwanda, gutsinda ubwoba no kurwanya akarengane.

Kurwanya FPR Inkotanyi ku babyemera kandi babikunze ni igikorwa cy’ubutwari kuko ari ugutabara abanyarwanda no gutabara akarere.

Ubu butumwa dusubirirwamo kandi na Guverinoma y’u Rwanda ikorera mu buhungiro bushingiye ku guhuriza hamwe abanyarwanda bose (UNIRI), kwigomeka no kurwanya ikibi ugahangana ushikamye (RESISTER), ari nabyo biganisha ku kwibohora nyabyo (LIBERER), tubukomereho.

Ubu butumwa kandi burareba n’abakongomana duhamagarira kwifatanya no guterana inkunga ngo twese hamwe dutabare ibihugu byacu hamwe n’akarere kugarijwe n’intambara z’ubushotoranyi mu gihe cy’imyaka 25 yose. Icyo bagomba gusobanukirwa neza n’uko ibi byago abanyekongo babayemo tubisangiye, kandi ko bidashyigikiwe n’abanyarwanda, nk’abaturanyi babo, ahubwo ka gatsiko twavugaga kabataye ku munigo kakigarurira ibyabo byose. Umubabaro abanyekoko bafite, abanyarwanda bawumazemo imyaka irenga 28, ari nayo mpamvu twese dufite ishingano yo guhagurukira tukakabuza gukomeza kwangiza akarere.

Umwanditsi

Innocent NIRINGIYIMANA

 

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