Impaka zitari iza »ngo turwane » par Edmond Munyangaju

Mu Rwanda hemewe ishyaka rya politiki rimwe gusa : Paul Kagame.

Akenshi iyo abantu bajya impaka, ikibazo ntikiba ibyo buri wese ashyigikiye ku ruhande rwe, ahubwo ikigorana ni ukumva aho buri wese ashingira ibyo yemeza n’ingingo abiherekeresha. Akenshi ndetse abantu bashobora kwirirwa mu mpaka bukira bibwira ngo baraganira ku kintu kimwe nyamara atari ko biri. Reka ntange urugero. Umwana yari hanze akina n’abandi abona amafarasi igikumba yiruka ku musozi bateganye. Ahamagara nyina amubwira mu gifaransa ati “viens voir des chevals, maman!”. Nyina aho yibereye mu nzu yaramushubije ngo “ce sont des chevaux, idiot !”. Umwana byaramutunguye ati ese mama ni gute ungisha impaka utanasohotse ngo urebe. Nyina ati winsakuriza ntasohoka nkagukubita. Umwana yumvise bikomeye ati tubyihorere, ariko yongeraho ngo “et pourtant c’était des chevals”. Icyari gishishikaje umubyeyi ni ikibonezamvugo, kuko koko mu gifaransa ifarasi mu bwinshi si « chevals » ni « chevaux ». Umwana ku ruhande rwe, yibwiraga ko « chevaux » bivuze ikindi kintu kitari ayo mafarasi arimo areba. Muri make, bajyaga impaka ku bintu binyuranye (contexte) ariko batabizi.

Nyuma yo kumva impaka zo mu kiganiro Imvo n’Imvano cyo ku wa gatandatu ushize, nifuje ko twafatanya kurebera hamwe ingingo umuntu yashingiraho mu kumva ibyavuzwe n’agaciro bifite. Tunarenze izo mpaka, ni byiza mu rwa gasabo kujya tugira amahame dushingiraho impaka. Iyo bitabaye, buri wese avuga ibyo yumva kandi akaba afite ukuri. Icyo bombi baba birengagije, ni uko hari amahame shingiro yemewe ku rwego mpuzamahanga ari yo twagakwiye gushingiraho duhamya cyangwa duhakana ibivugwa. Nguyu umuganda unzinduye.

Ese mu Rwanda haba amashyaka (menshi)?

Mu kiganiro, umunyamakuru Mugenzi yibukije ko mu Rwanda hasanzwe amashyaka menshi, abaganiraga na we bamwibutsa ko akorera mu kwaha kwa FPR. Ariko se mu by’ukuri, mu masesengura yemewe ku rwengo rw’isi dushingira kuki tubara amashyaka. Ubaze amashyaka mu mazina yayo anyuranye (FPR, PSD, PDC, PDI, PL, PSR, PPC) nta gushidikanya ko mu Rwanda hari amashya menshi. Gusa rero iki si cyo gishingirwaho babara amashyaka. Impamvu ni uko ibi byatubeshya ku ngufu n’agaciro kayo, ntibidufashe gutandukanya amashyaka y’ukuri afite ingufu n’uruhare muri politiki, n’andi y’ikititiro ariho ku izina gusa. Igipimo kidufasha kureba iyi ngingo ni ijanisha ry’amajwi mu matora. Reka nisobanure mpereye ku rugero rw’ibihugu bibiri.

Dufate igihugu A gifite amashyaka atatu yegukana imyanya ku buryo bukurikira: ishyaka x (97%), ishyaka y (2%), ishyaka z (1%). Dufate n’igihugu B na cyo gifite amashyaka atatu: ishyaka k (50%), ishyaka m (30%), ishyaka n (20%). Buri wese arabona aho bitandukaniye. Mu gihugu A, ishyaka rifata ibyemezo rifite n’ingufu za politiki ni x, andi ni icyitiriro. Naho mu gihugu B, yose uko ari atatu afite ingufu muri politiki. Tuyabaruye rero dushingiye ku mubare wayo twakwibehya ngo buri gihugu gifite amashyaka kandi atari byo.

Mu isesengura hakoreshwa icyitwa ENP (Effective Number of Parties) tubara dutya: ENP= 1/∑ p2(sintinda mu gusobanura aho iyi “formule” ituruka ntagira uwo mbihiriza inzoga kandi atari njye wazisengeye). Nta bwenge buhanitse burimo, dufata rimwe tukagabanya n’ijanisha ry’amajwi ya buri shyaka. Duhereye kuri ruriya rugero reka turebe aho biriya bihugu bitandukaniye.

Umubare w’ukuri w’amashyaka mu gihugu A = 1/0,972+0,022+0,012 (ni ukuvuga 1/0,9414) =1,06.

Umubare w’ikuri w’amashyaka mu gihugu B = 1/0,502+0,302+0,202 (ni ukuvuga 1/0,38) =2,6.

Dore icyiza cyo kwifashisha ibipimo. Igipimo kitweretse ko mu gihugu A, n’ubwo mu mazina hari amashyaka atatu, ariko mu by’ukuri hari ishyaka rimwe andi ni icyitiriro. Naho mu gihugu B, hari amashyaka abiri afite ingufu zihagije n’irindi riyagwa mu ntege. Ushaka kumva iby’u Rwanda nahere aha.

Mu matora aherutse (2008), mu myanya 53 y’abadepite ihatanirwa mu matora, byatanze iyi foto:

-FPR n’abayometseho (PDC, PDI, PSP, PSR, PPC, UDPR): 78,76%

-PSD: 13,12%

-PL: 7,5%.

Dukoresheje cya gipimo biraba 1/0,782+0,132+0,072 (1/0,6302) = 1,5. Icyo bivuze ni uko dufashe ibipimo byemewe ku isi, mu Rwanda hari ishyaka rimwe gusa, n’andi uruhuri uyateranyije atagira n’ingufu z’ishyaka rimwe. Abantu bahereye aha bajya impaka zitari za zindi za ngo turwane. Ni cyo ubumenyi bumaze. Ikibazo gisigaye ni ukureba niba FPR n’amashyaka ayiyometseho bifatwa nk’amashyaka menshi.

Mu masesengura mpuzamahanga hari ibipimo bikoreshwa. Ni ibibazo bitanu:

*Ese ayo mashyaka yigeze guhangana mu matora?

*Ese biyunze nyuma y’amatora?

*Ese bafatanyije muri guvernoma?

*Ese bafatanyije mu nteko ishinga amategeko?

*Ese bamwe baba barigeze kuba ku butegetsi mu gihe abandi bari muri “opposition”?

Iyo igisubizo kuri ibyo bibazo bitanu ari oya nk’uko biri mu Rwanda, tuyabara nk’ishyaka rimwe. Ikibazo shingiro ni icya kabiri. Iyo amashyaka yiyunze nyuma y’amatora, biba bivuze ko mu gihe cyo kwiyamamaza bagaragarije abaturage aho batandukaniye, iyo bikozwe mbere y’amatora ni ukuvuga ko bayinjiramo nk’ishyaka rimwe rukumbi. Ng’uko uko bimeze mu Rwanda.

2.Akari aha kari n’ahandi. Ngo Rurihose ni umwana w’umunyarwanda.

Ibi tumaze kuvuga ku mashyaka ari mu Rwanda imbere ntibigarukira aho gusa. Bigera no ku mashyaka yo hanze y’igihugu. Aya mashyaka na yo uyabaze mu mazina yayo ushobora gutungurwa n’uburyo ari menshi. Icyo kwitonderwa ariko, ni uko na yo muri yo hari menshi y’ingwizamurongo. Gusa kuko yo atari yigera mu ruhando rw’amatora, biragoye kubona ibipimo ntakuka ushingiraho ubara ari yo by’ukuri (NEP). N’ubwo bigoye ariko, reka tugerageze gushaka icyitegererezo cyaduha icyerekezo. Amashyaka tuyatandukanya mu buryo bwinshi.

Ubwa mbere ni ugutandukanya amashyaka yubakiye ku baturage (Parti Populaires) n’amashyaka y’intiti (Elites). Aho atandukaniye, ni uko irya kabiri rishobora kugira abanyamuryago bake ariko mu matora imigabi yaryo abanyagihugu bakayihundagazaho amajwi. Ibi bivuze ko abaritora bose baba atari abanyamuryango baryo. Ishyaka ryubakiye ku baturage ryo rirangwa no kugira abanyamuryango benshi. Uhereye aha, amashyaka akorera hanze y’igihugu wayashyira mu cyiciro cya kabiri (ay’intiti) kuko atarabona uburyo bwo kugaragaza umubare w’abaturage bayashyigikiye. Si igisebo kuko na FPR ni uko. N’ubwo irwanira kugaragaza ko yubakiye ku baturage, nta muntu wumva ibya politiki ushobora kuyibeshyaho. Ishobora koko gutorwa n’abaturage, ariko kuyibera abanyamuryango ni ikindi. Ikigira umuntu umunyamuryango si ukuba yararahiye (rimwe na rimwe ku mpamvu zitamuturutseho).

Aha rero ni ho za mpaka zo gutaha no kudataha zitakariza ingufu. Kujya gukorera mu Rwanda ni ingenzi ariko si isubyo rikemura byose. Gukorera hanze ni imbogamizi ariko si uguta igihe. Birashoboka ko ishyaka rikorera hanze nyamara rigashobora gucengeza gahunda yaryo mu banyarwanda bakaryibonamo. Ntibyaribuza kuba ishyaka ryubakiye ku baturage. Biranashoboka ko rikorera mu Rwanda ariko abaturage ntibaryiyumvemo. Urugero rutari kure ni FPR. Uwagirango ndabeshya azatohoze intambara y’ibikumwe mu matora, amenye impamvu nyuma y’amatora ya 2003 amashuri menshi yo muri Kibuye yacukuye imisarani mishya, amenye n’impamvu imibare yo muri Kibuye yabonetse itinze. Birahagije. Igikomeye rero ku mashyaka si aho bakorera, ni icyo bakora n’uburyo bagikora. Wataha, wasigara, ikibazo ni icyo utahanye cyangwa usigaranye.

Icya kabiri umuntu aheraho atandukanya amashyaka ni izina yubakiyeho. Haba amashyaka yubakiye ku ngengabitekerezo (ideologie) hakaba n’ayubakiye ku muntu. Ubusanzwe ishyaka ryose rigira umwungeri (leader), ariko aho bitandukanira ni uko mu ishyaka ryubakiye ku bitekerezo ingengabitekerezo iza mbere, izina ry’umwungeri rikaza nyuma. Hari aho rero usanga izina ry’umwungeri riza mbere y’ibitekerezo. Iyo umwungeri agize ikibazo, ibisigaye imbwa zibirwaniramo kuko ari we riba ryubakiyeho. Ibi bishobora guterwa n’uko umwungeri ari indashyikirwa (charismatique) ku buryo izina rye ripfukirana ibindi, cyangwa se bigaterwa n’uko ishyaka ubwaryo nta ngengabitekerezo rifite. Aha na ho hadufasha kumva amashyaka akorera hanze.

Mwabonye uburyo FDU yatobaguritse hafi no gucikamo nyuma yo gufungwa kwa Victoire Ingabire. Ni urugero rutari kure. Ariko iki kibazo umuntu yagishyira no ku bandi. Ese Twagiramungu agize ikibazo (simbimwifurije arakarama) RDI yasigara imeze ite? Ese Habyarimana Emmanuel agize ikibazo (simbimwifurije arakarama) ishyaka ayoboya ryasigara he? Ese Padiri Tomasi agize ikibazo (simbimwifurije arakarama) byagenda bite mu Ishema Party?

Iri hurizo rigaruka ku kibazo cy’ikipe ikuriye ishyaka. Umuhanzi Rugamba ati “urunana ni wo mugambi umugabo umwe aba inkeho cyane. Ibyo ateruye iyo bimucitse nta we umwunganira. Abasangiye imihigo n’iyo rukaze barurwana bose”. Ngiryo ipfundo ryubakiyeho ishyaka rya politiki. Aha rero na ho haha umuntu akadirishya areberamo amashyaka ahatanira mu kibuga uyu munsi. Iyi ngingo yo gutandukanya ishyaka n’umwungeri iradufasha kumva icya gatatu gitandukanya amashyaka.

3.Amashyaka y’ibigugu (inararibonye) n’amashyaka mashya.

Mu mashyaka akorera hanze y’u Rwanda nta shyaka wavuga ko rifite uburambe (ikigugu), yose wayita mashya. Reka nisobanure. Cya kindi cyo kwitiranya ishyaka n’umwungeri riramutswa gituma abantu tuvanga ibidahuye. Icyo abantu bita amashyaka afite uburambe, mu by’ukuri ni amashyaka akuriwe n’abantu batinze muri politiki nka Faustin Twagiramungu. Kandi koko ari mu bamazemo igihe kirekire. Gusa tuvuye ku muntu tukajya ku ishyaka, ishyaka rye RDI ni iry’ejo hashize. Uwabivuga neza yavuga ko amashyaka yose ari hanze ari mashya. Muri yo hakaba hari ayobowe n’abanyapolitiki barambye mu ruhando, andi akaba ayobowe n’urubyiruko. Nashimye ijambo ry’inararibonye Twagiramungu agira ati “urwo rubyiruko rw’imyaka 40 ni urubyiruko rushaje”. Nari niteze ko abivugana agahinda, ntungurwa no kumva abivuganye isheja. Nk’uko nabivuze, haba politiki z’ubwoko bubiri, iyubakiye ku muntu n’iyubakiye ku bitekerezo. Iyubakiye ku muntu yizirika kuri nyirayo kuzagera ijabiro kwa Jambo. Iyubakiye ku bitekerezo irema uruhererekane hagati y’ibisekuruza. Ikibazo abanyapolitiki b’inararibonye bakwiye kwibaza ni impamvu ubwo bunararibonye bwabo babusazanye bikaba byarananiranye kubusangiza ababagwa mu ntege ngo bazabacungure ejo hazaza. Muri politiki igihambaye si ukugira ibitekerezo, ni uguharanira ko bizanakomeza n’igihe uzaba utakiriho. Ni cyo bita gusiga izina.

Hari indirimbo ebyiri umuhanga Rugamba yadusigiye zishushanya imyumvire ibiri y’umwuga uwo ari wo wese na politiki irimo.

Iya mbere iragira iti “Cya kivi nateruye kirananiye, ndikamata ngo ncyuse ngasusumira, ndumva intege ari nkeya, zananiye nkibyuka ndarekeye. Urumve shami nashibutse, icyo kivi ni icyawe, ubu nguhariye kucyusa. Mwana wanjye uzabe ingenzi. Uzase nanjye urenzeho unsumbye ndabigusabye”.

Inararibonye ni iyifuza ko abana babyiruka bazasa nayo ndetse bakayirenga. Ibitari ibyo byitwa ukundi. Iki ni cyo politiki y’u Rwanda yabuze. Nta munyapolitiki utekereza ajo ngo aturatire abato bamugwa mu ntege yatoje.

Indirimbo ya kabiri iranga ikindi cyiciro cy’inararibonye ni igira iti “ndengeje imyaka ya pansiyo, akazi nahawe karankijije, nzarinda nshenguka nkigakora, abatoya basizana baceceke, nibabe baretse”.

Umunyapolitiki cyangwa undi wese ubyumva atya, ashobora koko kuba umuhanga n’inararibonye, ariko ubunararibonye bwe barajyana, ntasiga ishibu. Intore idasize iyo yatoje igenda nk’intozo! Abanyapolitiki b’inararibonye bafite byinshi bashimirwa, cyakora na none kubabwira ukuri no kubanenga mu kimyabupfura ni inshingano idakuka. Iyo baza gushyira imbere politiki yubakiye ku bitekerezo, bakiyumva muri iriya ndirimbo ya mbere, ubu baba bagubwa mu ntege n’urubyiruko ruto. Kuba bagubwa mu ntege “n’urubyiruko rushaje” nk’uko Twagiramungu yabikomojeho, sinzi niba twabibonamo ishema cyangwa ikinegu.

Umwanzuro.

Kagame yacyuriye Bizimungu. Hari muri mata 2001, mu cyunamo. Yaragize ati “nemera ko igihugu kigomba kuyoborwa n’ibitekerezo. Ariko ikibazo ni uko nabatagira ibitekerezo bashaka gutera impaka”. Ubanza umwega yarariguyeho. Abanyarwanda muri rusange n’abanyamashyaka by’umwihariko tumaze imyaka 19 tujya impaka. Ahari se igihe nticyari kigeze ngo tuzizanemo ibitekerezo, twese nk’abitsamuye!

Edmond Munyangaju.

 kagame reka abatsinde amagambo arangire (mercredi, 27 février 2013 15:15)

Nta manda yindi nkeneye-Perezida Kagame

Mu kiganiro Perezida Paul Kagame yagiranye n’abanyamakuru kuri uyu wa 27 Gashyantare 2013, yavuze ko nta manda yindi akeneye nk’uko yakunze kubibazwa cyane n’abanyamakuru ndetse n’abaturage bagakomeza kumusaba ko yazongera akiyamamaza kuko babona bakimukeneye.

Perezida Kagame yabwiye abanyamakuru ko nta nyota y’indi manda afite, ati « Mundebe, sindi umuntu ukeneye manda ya gatatu. Sinyishaka ! »

Perezida Kagame yavuze ko hatahindurwa Itegekonshinga ry’u Rwanda kugira ngo asubire kuyobora, avuga ko ibyo bigomba gukuraho urujijo ku baba bagitekereza ko ari ko byagenda.

Perezida Kagame yasabwe n’Abanyarwanda batandukanye kongera kwiyamamariza indi manda nubwo iyo ari kuyobora ari yo ya nyuma yemerewe n’Itegekonshinga ry’u Rwanda.

Muri Mutarama 2013 ubwo yasuraga uturere twa Nyamasheke na Rusizi mu Ntara y’Iburengerazuba umuturage umwe yamubwiye ko abona ibyo yagejeje ku Rwanda ari byinshi kandi byiza, akaba akwiye gukomereza aho ageze ayobora indi manda.

Ubwo yari mu turere twa Nyamagabe na Nyaruguru muri Gashyantare uyu mwaka naho abaturage batandukanye bamusabye kuyobora indi manda bashingiye ku byo yagejeje ku gihugu, icyakora iki gihe ababwira ko ibyo baba baretse kubyibazaho cyane bagategereza igihe cyabyo kuko kitaragera.

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