Imyaka 50 Urwanda rwigenga: Umwami Musinga yacuze umugambi wo kuroga Ababiligi, bashaka kumufunga habura gato ! Padiri F. RUDAKEMWA

Umwami Yuhi IV Musinga.jpg

Ubushize ku italiki ya 18 z’ukwezi gushize kwa Kamena twarebeye hamwe uko inzego gakondo mu Rwanda zakurikirinaga n’uko zakoraga. Ibyo byari ngombwa cyane kugirango dushobore kwumva ukwo Ababiligi bakolonije Urwanda kuva mu w’1916 kugera mu w’1962. Ndashimira abanyunganiye, cyane cyane Bwana Nzabandora P n’abandi bose bavuze icyo bumvise cyangwa icyo batekereza kuri izo nzego gakondo. Byongeye kwerekana ko kuri uri rubuga ntawe uniganwa ijambo, cyane cyane iyo arifashe agamije kungurana n’abandi ibitekerzo byubaka.

3. Ababiligi

Mu w’1916 Ababiligi bamenesheje Abadage mu Rwanda, barabasimbura. Haaba ari naho haturutse ijambo “Umuzungu-Abazungu” rikomoka ku nshinga iri mu mbundo (idatondaguye –infinitif-) “Kuzungura”. Ubwo ariko i Burayi no mu bindi bihugu byinshi byo ku isi, intambara ya mbere y’isi yose yari igikomeje kuko yaje kurangira mu w’1918. Ubwo ni nako mu Rwanda inzara Rumanura (1916-1918) yarimo yica abantu batagira ingano.

Iyo nzara yatewe n’uko n’ubusanzwe ubuhake ntaho bwari butaniye n’ubucakara ; irongera iterwa n’intambara nyine. Ingabo z’Abadage zari zikeneye ibiribwa, n’ingabo z’Ababiligi zari zibikeneye. Hagombaga kandi abantu bo kubyikorera no kwikorera ibikoresho by’intambara by’izo ngabo zose. Hanyuma ingabo z’Abadage aho zanyuraga, zasigaga zangije ibintu byose harimo n’ibihingwa kugirango ingabo z’Ababiligi nizihagera zizabure ibizitunga.

Ababiligi bamaze gutsinda, kugirango babashe kugoboka Abanyarwanda bari bamerewe nabi n’inzara no kugirango bumve bacigatiye Urwanda mu biganza byabo (contrôle du territoire), barugabanijemo ibice bibiri : icy’iburasirazuba n’icy’iburengerazuba. Musinga yaketse ko igice cy’iburasirazuba kimucitse, agasigara ari umwami w’igice cy’iburengerazuba gusa. Ni bwo rero acuze umugambi wo kuroga umubiligi wacungaga igice cy’iburasirazuba na benshi muri bamwungirije. Yibwiraga ko abo apfuye, ari bwo yakongera kuba umwami w’Urwanda rwose. Nyamara umwe mu bo bari bafatanije gucura uwo mugambi mubisha, bagombaga no gufatanya kuwushyira mu bikorwa yananiwe guhisha ibanga, amuvamo!

Le 25/03/1917 ubugenzacyaha bw’Ababiligi mu Rwanda busaba ko Musinga afatwa, agafungwa, akazashyikirizwa ubucamanza. Major Declercq wari ukuriye ubutegetsi bwa gisirikari bw’Ababiligi mu Rwanda arabyangira. Yatinyaga ko byarebeka nabi, ntiyifuzaga ko hagira abavuga ngo “iby’Ababiligi mu Rwanda bitangiye nabi”. Ni na cyo cyatumye Ababiligi barekera Musinga ku ntebe ya cyami mu w’1916 kandi batari bayobewe ko we rwose yishakiraga Abadage, kandi n’ingabo ze zitwaga “Indugaruga” zari zarafashije umwanzi mu ntambara.

Guha Abanyarwanda imfashanyo z’ibiribwa kugirango bahonoke inzara ya Rumanura byari byiza, ariko ntibyari bihagije. Ababiligi batekereje no ku bindi bakora kugirango inzara itazongera gutera mu Rwanda. Bagishije Musinga inama, arabawira ngo “inzara iterwa n’uko Abahutu ari abanebwe”, asaba Ababiligi ko bajya babakoresha nk’abakoresha amapunda cyangwa imashini. Kubera ko Ababiligi bo babonga neza icyatumaga amapfa n’inzara bihoraho mu Rwanda bategetse ko ubuso bw’imirima yagenewe ubuhinzi bwakwiyongera, ubw’iyagenewe inzuri bukagabanuka. Bategetse kandi ko n’ibishanga bihingwa aho kugumiraho ngo inka z’abatware zizabone aho zirisha mu cyi.

Mu w’1917 nanone Major Declerck aca iteka ko :

1°. Umututsi uzongera kwambura Umuhutu imyaka ye azajya ayimusubiza icuro ebyiri.

2°. Umututsi uzongera kuragira inka ze mu myaka y’Umuhutu azajya amuriha incuro 2 ibyo izo nka zizaba zangije.

3° Abatware babujijwe gukoresha Abahutu uburetwa buruta ubuteganijwe n’amategeko.

Birumvikana ko ibyemezo nk’ibi byari bigamije kugabanya akarengane kagirirwaga rubanda no gukumira amapfa n’inzara bitashimishije umwami Musinga n’ibyegera bye.

Ntibyahagarariye aho kubera ko mu w’1917 Ababiligi barekeye Musinga ububasha wo guca imanza, ariko bamwambura ubwo gutanga igihano cy’urupfu. Icyo gihano cyashoboraga gutangwa gusa n’urukiko rukuru rw’abakoloni. Kuri Musinga ibintu nk’ibyo byari ishyano. Kuri we umwami utica nta mwami wabaga amurimo, kuko imwe mu nkingi z’ubutegetsi ari ubwoba nyine abantu bahoranaga ko ashobora kwica uwo ashatse n’igihe ashakiye. Kwica abemeye kuba abakirisitu ni byo Musinga yari aharaye muri icyo gihe. Reka rero Ababiligi bamusabe guca iteka ko buri Munyarwanda ashobora kujya mu idini ashatse, ko kuba umukirisitu atari icyaha. Ntagushidikanya ko ibyo nabyo yabyemeye agononwa.

Abadage bamaze gutsindwa burundu, abarwanaga nabo bamaze gushira impumu, bahuriye i Verisaye (Versailles) mu Bufaransa. Kimwe mu bihano bafatiye Ubudage ni ukubwambura ibihugu bwahoze bukoloniza. Ubwongereza bwifuzaga kwigarurira Tanganyika, Urwanda n’Uburundi. Ububiligi butera hejuru buti “Urwanda n’Uburundi natwe turabishaka kuberako twagize uruhare rukomeye mu ntambara kandi bikaba bihana imbibi na Kongo yacu”. Umwanzuro uba ko Ubwongereza bwegukana Tanganyika, Ububiligi bugatwara Urwanda n’Uburundi ; ariko agace ko mu burasirazuba bw’ Urwanda kitwa Gisaka n’agace k’u burasirazuba bw’Uburundi kitwa Bugufi, utwo duce twombi tukavanwa ku Urwanda no ku Burundi, tukomekwa kuri Tanganyika y’Abongereza. Agace kavanwe ku Rwanda kitwa Igisaka karutaga iyi Gisaka dusanzwe tuzi kuko kari gafite ubuso bwa kilometerokare ibihumbi 5. Amasezerano yo kugatanga yasinyiwe i Paris le 28/05/1919 hagati y’abahagarariye Ububiligi n’Ubwongeleza, ashyirwa mu bikorwa le 22/03/1921. Musinga n’ibyegera bye byarabababaje, ariko abaturage bo muri ako karere bo barishimye cyane kubera ko bari bakize igitugu cy’ingoma ya Musinga. N’Abatutsi bari batuye muri ako karere barishimye kuko Abatutsi bandi bo mu Rwanda kwa Musinga babasuzuguraga bakabanyunyuza imitsi.

Icyizere cy’Abanyagisaka ntabwo cyabaye nka kirya kiraza amasinde. Abongereza baraje, bategeka neza kandi bagaca imanza zitabera. Dore ingero zimwe z’ibyatumye abaturage babakunda :

1.Abongereza babujije abatware gusahura abaturage no kubirukana mu byabo. Buri muturage yagombaga kugumana isambu ye.

2.Hari umugabo wagiye kurega umutware Rugambarara avuga ko amaze imyaka 5 aragiye ubushyo bwe bw’ingurube atabihemberwa kandi akongeraho no gukora ubundi buretwa bwose busanzwe. Umutware Rugambarara yategetswe n’Abongereza gusubirana ingurube ze kandi agaha wa mugabo inka 5 z’igihembo cy’imyaka 5 yari amaze aragiye izo ngurube.

3.Umuturage umwe yiyemeje guhindura umutware, uwo yari asanzweho aramusahura, amutwikira n’inzu. Bwana Alsopps, mburamatare (guverineri) w’umwongereza wategekaga i Gisaka yategetse uwo mutware mubi gusubiza wa muturage ihene ze, kumwubakira inzu ye yari yashenye, kumuha inka 1 no kutazongera kumubuza amahoro.

4.Abongereza bashyizeho umusoro w’umutwe w’amashilingi 3 n’igice, ariko imirimo y’uburetwa barayigabanya bihagije.

Abavuga ngo ingoma cyami yari nziza bagomba kuba babiterwa n’uko batayizi, n’uko « umusonga w’undi utakubuza gusinzira » cyangwa n’uko ngo « umugabo ari urya utwe akarya n’utw’abandi ». Naho ubundi yari mbi. Abongereza ntibatinze mu Gisaka kuko le 01/01/1924 bagishubije Musinga. Bari bamaze kubona ko inzira ya gariyamoshi bifuzaga kwubaka bashoboraga kuyicisha mu ntara ya Tanganyika, bitabaye ngombwa byanze bikunze ko bayinyuza mu burasirazuba bw’Urwanda. Ng’uko uko Abanyagisaka basubiye ku ngoyi bari bamaze hafi imyaka 3 baruhutse!

BIRACYAZA.

Padiri F. Rudakemwa

Votre commentaire

Entrez vos coordonnées ci-dessous ou cliquez sur une icône pour vous connecter:

Logo WordPress.com

Vous commentez à l’aide de votre compte WordPress.com. Déconnexion /  Changer )

Photo Google

Vous commentez à l’aide de votre compte Google. Déconnexion /  Changer )

Image Twitter

Vous commentez à l’aide de votre compte Twitter. Déconnexion /  Changer )

Photo Facebook

Vous commentez à l’aide de votre compte Facebook. Déconnexion /  Changer )

Connexion à %s

%d blogueurs aiment cette page :