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Mu Rwanda abana ba rubanda bazashira mu gihe ab’abaherwe bari ku butegetsi bazaba bamena ibiryo mu ngarani !

Ibya ngombwa byose biruzuye kugirango mu kwa 4 kw’uyu mwaka mu Rwanda hazatere inzara. N’ubundi irahari, ariko mu kwa 4 ni bwo izarusaho kuzahaza Abanyarwanda, ndetse benshi muri bo bapfe. Ubusanzwe mu Rwanda ukwezi kwa 3 n’ukwa 4 yitwa igihe cya “gashogoro”, kubera ko abahinzi benshi batungwa n’umushogoro basoromye ku bishyimbo bikiri bito mu gihe bategereje ko byera. Ubu rero henshi bategetswe guhinga ibindi bihingwa bitari ibishyimbo, kandi nta wasoroma umushogoro ku bigori, ku nanasi cyangwa ku bisheke.

Indi mpamvu inzara izarimbura imbaga ni uko ibihingwa abaturage bategetswe guhinga bazajya babigurisha ku giciro kiri hasi, amafaranga avuyemo ntatume babasha kugura ibiribwa bakeneye. Amafaranga umuturage azahabwa nko ku biro 10 by’ibigori ntazaba abasha no kugura inusu y’ikiro cy’ibishyimbo cyangwa cy’umuceri. Abazunguka ni babandi babategetse kubihinga, akaba ari nabo bazabigura ku giciro bishakiye, bakajya kubitunganya mu nganda zabo, kubiha amatungo yabo cyangwa kubigurisha mu mahanga. Kubera ko bazaba bungutse cyane, bazagaruka gukukumba n’utwo umuturage yari asigaranye, bamutegeke kongera kubahingira kugera avuyemo umwuka kubera umudari.

Ni uko byagenze igihe cya Ruzagayura (1943-1944). Ibihugu by’i Burayi byari mu ntambara ya 2 y’isi. Byari bikeneye ibiribwa byinshi byo gutunga abasirikari babyo bari ku rugamba. Babikuraga aho bashoboye hose, batibagiwe no mu bihugu byari bigikolonijwe. Abategetsi b’ibanze bo mu Rwanda bafatanije n’abacuruzi b’ibisambo biraye mu baturage. Bababwiraga ko bagomba gutanga umusanzu w’ingabo (effort de guerre), bakabambura imyaka n’amatungo cyane cyane inka, bakabaha udufaranga duke cyane ; ariko bo babigeza muri Congo, Leta mbiligi ikabaha amafaranga menshi cyane, bakagaruka mu Rwanda gusakuma n’utwari dusigaye.

Igihe umwami Mutara wa 3 Rudahigwa ashyingirwa n’umugore we wa 2, Rosaliya Gicanda le 18/01/1943, igihe we na nyina Kankazi babatizwa le 17/10/1943, abaturage bariho bicwa n’inzara. Abategetsi bo hejuru ntabwo bari babizi. Abo hasi bari barabibahishe, ahubwo bagahora bababwira ngo mu cyaro ni amahoro. Hapfuye abantu barenze ibihumbi 100, abandi benshi bahungira mu bihugu bihana imbibi n’u Rwanda nk’uko n’ubu abaturage bo muri za Kivuye batangiye guhungira muri Uganda.

Abapadiri 3, Bisengimana Misheli, Bushishi Galikani n’umumisiyoneri witwaga Mutsaerts wari i Kansi ni bo bakomye akamo bati “abantu barashize”, bafata ikaramu n’urupapuro bandikira Musenyeri Kalasi (Classe), babimenyesha na guverineri w’umubiligi Yungerisi (Jungers); ariko abayobozi bo hasi bari babahitanye, habura gato! Na ba Gitifu b’ubu rero basanzwe bafite imishahara ihanitse, bakaba baherutse no guhabwa imodoka nziza kandi zikomeye si bo bazajya kwikura amata mu kanwa ngo baravugira abaturage. Ahubwo kubera icyunamo cya buri mwaka gitangira mu kwa 4 kikarangira mu kwa 7, umuturage uzavuga ko inzara yateye bazamurega guhakana jenoside, kuyipfobya no guhungabanya umutekano, bamutegeke guceceka (kuziba).

Indi nzara itazibagirana mu mateka y’u Rwanda ni Rumanura (1917-1918). Impamvu ya mbere yateye iyo nzara nanone ni intambara ya mbere y’isi. Ingabo z’Abadage zari zihanganye n’iz’Ababiligi mu Rwanda bafashijwe n’Abongereza. Izo ngabo zose zari zikeneye ibiribwa, abantu bo kubyikorera, kwikorera intwaro n’ibindi bikoresho by’intambara. Aho kujya mu murima ngo bahinge, abaturage bafite ingufu bose bajyanwa gukora iyo mirimo yo gufasha abari ku rugamba. N’ubu rero mu Rwanda wagirango intambara ntirarangira. Abaturage barindishijwe imbunda boshye inyamaswa z’inkazi. Abasirikari ba FPR batsinze aba Habyarimana bakabamenesha ni bo bategeka igihugu, ariko bafite umururumba ugiye kuzatuma abaturage bicwa n’inzara. Basabwa amahooro, imisoro, imisanzu (ya FPR), ruswa ; ayo mafaranga yose ntakoreshwa mu cyakiza abaturage inzara, ahubwo yigira mu mifuka ya ba Afandi bakuru.

Indi mpamvu yatumye inzara ya Rumanura itera ni amategeko mabi yagengaga ubutaka muri icyo gihe, kandi n’ubu ayo mategeko yaragarutse. Imirima yari igenewe urwuri yarutaga igenewe ubuhinzi. Ibishanga ntibyahingwaga kugirango inka zijye zibona aho zirisha mu cyi. Byongeye kandi aborozi b’inka bamwe ntibazuyazaga kuziragira mu myaka y’abahinzi. Mu by’ukuri abahinzi bari barambuwe ubutaka bwabo. Ibyo rero ntaho bitaniye n’ibyateye ubu ngo umuhinzi ajye asorera agasambu kandi n’ubundi katari kamukijije. Aramutse abuze uwo musoro, bazaherako bakamwaka. Ibi rero bisobanura ko isambu atari iye, ko we ari umugererwa, ko yatisha, ariko mu by’ukuri isambu ikaba ari iy’uriya asorera. Nta kuntu bitateza inzara.

Guverineri Dokeleriki (Declerck) yaciye iteka (n°. 791/A/53 de 1917) ko ayo mategeko mabi agenga ubutaka avuyeho, nyamara ntibyayabujije gukomeza kubaho kugera mu w’1959. None dore aragarutse. Ni ukuvuga ko Abanyarwanda bazahora mu nzara idashira. Kubera ko iyo politiki mbi yagengaga ubutaka itavuyeho, mu Rwanda hongeye gutera andi mapfa : Gakwege (1924-1925) na Rwakayihura (1928-1929). Iyi nzara yo mu w’1928-1929 bayise Rwakayihura kubera surushefu Kayihura watwaraga mu Buliza, akaba yari umugome cyane, yarabujije abaturage amahoro. Inzara itangiriye mu Buliza, baherako bayita Rwakayihura. Ubu se inzara iriho mu Rwanda, ikaba izakaza umurego guhera mu kwa 4 kw’uyu mwaka, yo izahabwa irihe zina?

Umwanzuro

Nk’uko basanzwe babigenza rero, abagiraneza, abayobozi b’amadini, imiryango itabogamiye kuri leta nibatangire bakusanye imfashanyo z’ibiribwa, kandi abe ari bo bazabyitangira batabinyujije ku turere. Imfashanyo zinyuze ku turere zirarigiswa. Urugero rutari kure ni amabati yari agenewe ba bakene basenyewe amazu yabo ya nyakatsi n’ayari agenewe abasenyewe n’umutingito. Yanyuze ku turere, ariko si ko yose yageze kuri ba nyirayo. Amenshi yararigitishijwe hamwe n’ibiribwa byari bibagenewe, aha ngo “umutingito washenye amazu” ngo “ntiwarimbuye imyaka”. Ni yo mpamvu n’ubu amazu akomeje gusenywa kubera ko amabati naza ba Rushenyi aribo bazahungukira. Ariko ibiryo by’abakene byo bizabakoraho.

Jean de Dieu Musemakweli

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