Rwandan government is on its defensive over HYPERLINK « http://amnesty.org/en/library/info/AFR47/002/2011/en » t « _blank » Amnesty International campaign for freedom of expression in Rwanda. The campaign, under the theme “Unsafe to Speak out: Restrictions on Freedom of Expression in Rwanda”, is meticulous on the government’s numerous vague laws that pose unnecessary restrictions on people’s freedom of expression. One such law is the law on “repressing the crime of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes”, commonly referred to as the “genocide ideology” law. The major criticism is that the “genocide ideology” law is an instrument for government clampdown on, and criminalizing, President Paul Kagame’s critics. In a piece published by Rwanda’s newspaper, the New Times, the Prosecutor General of Rwanda endeavored, in vain, to justify the rationale and legality of the infamous “genocide ideology” law. A big number of leading opposition leaders and independent journalists have been prosecuted and convicted under this law. Thousands of high profile Rwandans fled the country for fear of being prosecuted under the vindictive “genocide ideology” law. Professor Peter Erlinder, a renowned American criminal lawyer and former lead defense counsel at the International criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, is awaiting trial in Rwanda under the same law.
The government’s argument is fallacious
Rwanda’s Prosecutor General, Mr. Martin Ngoga, advanced two arguments in support of the government premise that Rwanda needs the “genocide ideology” law. First, the Prosecutor drew a litany of regional groupings and countries which have ‘similar’ laws. He argued that because countries like France, Belgium, Australia, and Israel have ‘similar’ laws, Rwanda ‘needs’ the “genocide ideology” law. Second, Mr. Martin Ngoga argued that the crimes the “genocide law” seeks to punish are international in nature. Therefore, no issue should arise over Rwanda’s “genocide ideology” law. The Prosecutor General concluded that “[…] apart from the usual contempt with which the west holds Africans and their processes, where is the evil in the Rwandan Law?” The Prosecutor General’s arguments are fallacious and irrelevant to the discourse. Whether similar laws exist elsewhere is not in issue. The issue is whether or not the law on “genocide ideology” in Rwanda meets the international standards any law that imposes limits on people’s fundament rights must conform to. The concern is the quality of the law that punishes genocide or any other crime. In issue is not whether or not laws that punish genocide exist in any country. The principle is that people’s fundamental freedoms and rights must be protected. Where a state has compelling interest in limiting people’s fundamental freedoms and rights, the law thereto must meet some prescribed minimum international standards. Unlike the Prosecutor General’s unsubstantiated argument, the problem is not about the ‘west’ vis-à-vis Africans. Amnesty International, like other human rights bodies, is calling on the government of Rwanda to protect and preserve the citizens’ inalienable rights.
Rwanda, a country without justice
Quality of Rwanda’s “genocide ideology” law
The law No 33 bis/2003 of September 6, 2003 “Repressing the crime of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes”, article4, provides that “ Shall be sentenced to an imprisonment of ten (10) to twenty (20) years, any person who will have publicly shown, by his or her words, writings, images, or by any other means, that he or she has negated the genocide committed, rudely minimised it or attempted to justify or approve its grounds, or any person who will have hidden or destroyed its evidence. Where the crimes mentioned in the preceding paragraph are committed by an association or a political party, its dissolution shall be pronounced”.
The law on “genocide ideology” is ambiguous, overbroad and lacks precision:
Rwanda’s “genocide ideology” law is laden with vague, ambiguous and over generalized terms. It is ‘a catchall’ law. The law confuses genuine incidents of hate speech and legitimate freedom of thought and expression. Article 4 of the “genocide ideology” law curtails pluralism, tolerance and openness in debating issues of national concern. For examples, which conduct, under article 4 of the “genocide ideology” law, consists or does not consist of ‘negating genocide’? What action or speech consists of ‘rudely minimizing genocide’? The law does not define which conduct is within the scope of “negating genocide” and “minimizing genocide”. There is no certainty over which conduct is prohibited or not prohibited. Law abiding Rwandans are not put on notice of the forbidden conduct or speech. However, it is an established tenet that laws restricting people’s freedom of speech and right to opinion must be accessible, unambiguous, drawn narrowly and with precision. Article 4 of law No. 33 bis/2003 fails on these standards.
True, freedom of speech and the right to opinion under the Constitution of Rwanda and International human rights law instruments are not absolute. Article 34 of Rwandan constitution subjects the enjoyment of the right of freedom of press and information to: “respect of public order and good morals, the right of every citizen to honour, good reputation and the privacy and family life and the protection of the youth and minors”. Article 9 (2) of the African Charter on human and people rights stipulates that “every individual shall have the right to express and disseminate his opinion within the Law”. Article 19 of the 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, also allows for reasonable limitations on freedom of speech and the right to opinion. However, any such limit must confirm to specific international human rights law principles.
The law does not meet the standards of “necessity and proportionality”
Any restriction to people’s freedom of expression and right of opinion must be subjected to the twin principles of necessity and proportionality. The principle of necessity requires that restrictions on the people’s right of expression and opinion serve permissible purposes and are necessary to protect those purposes. First, the Rwandan law confuses genuine incidents of hate speech and legitimate freedom of thought and expression. Second, the law does not strike a balance between prohibiting hate speech and supporting freedom of opinion and expression. Consequently, the law paralyzes any meaningful debate on social and political issues that have any bearing on genocide. Ultimately, the purpose of the “genocide ideology” law is to ban meaningful debate. This is not permissible purpose.
The crime of “negating and minimizing” the crime of genocide is silent on the required mental element
Article 4 of law No. 33 bis/2003, does not indicate any required mental element for “negating and minimizing” genocide. It is unclear whether the law requires that the accused intentionally or knowingly or recklessly “negated” or “minimized” genocide. This law criminalizes all bonafide speech that touches on the controversy over the causes, victims and perpetrators of the 1994 genocide.
Penal statutes that restrict people’s freedom of expression because the subject matter is controversial are inconsistent with the demands of protecting people’s freedom of speech as required by Article 33 of Rwanda’s constitution. Article 33 of Rwandan constitution provides that “Freedom of thought, opinion, conscience, religion, worship and the public manifestation thereof is guaranteed by the State …” No condition or restriction may broadly stifle people’s freedoms and rights. The United States Supreme Court in, Shelton v Tucker, 364 US 479, 488 (1960), is categorical that “ […] Even though the Government’s purpose be legitimate and substantial, that purpose cannot be pursued by means that broadly stifle fundamental personal liberties when the end can be more narrowly achieved”.
The “genocide ideology” law appears a catalyst of imminent atrocities in the country.
The ultimately purpose of Rwanda’s “genocide ideology” law ought to be prevention of genocide. The root cause of genocide is failure by groups of people to co-exist with others they consider “bad” people. Genocide is a symptom of failure, by society, to embrace pluralism, diversity and other democratic values. The narrowest way of preventing genocide is to institutionalize co-existence of people with diverse views. Rwandan political culture is characterized by genocide, ethnic based hatred and elimination of political opponents. By curtailing objective political debate in the country, the “genocide ideology” law has the effect to exclude and eliminate government critics and promote violation of people’s human rights. In Organization for a Better Austin v Keefe, 402 US 415, 419 (1971) the United States Supreme court observed that “Criticism of public measures or comment on government action [definitions] however strongly worded is within reasonable limits and is consistent with the fundamental right of freedom of speech and expression. This right is not confined to informed and responsible criticism but includes the freedom to speak foolishly and without moderation. So long as the means are peaceful, the communication need not meet standards of common acceptability”
The spirit and letter of Article 4 of law No. 33 bis/2003 fails to recognize that freedom of opinion and expression cannot be limited to information and ideas that are favorably received or regarded as offensive. Freedom of opinion and expression extend also to information that offend and shock or disturb the state or any sector of the population. The European Court of Human Rights, in Handyside v United Kingdom (EHRR) 737 (1979-80), reasoned that “such are the demands of that pluralism, tolerance and broadmindedness without which there is no democratic society”. Rwanda’s “genocide ideology” law goes deep into the country’s social and political fabrics to ruin the foundations of democracy.
Some provisions of Rwanda’s law on “Repressing the crime of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes” are inconsistent with the international human rights legal instruments Rwanda signed and ratified. It is a bad law to the extent it is vague, ambiguous and overbroad. In its current form, the Rwandan law on “genocide ideology” does not serve any legitimate purpose. The law is unnecessary. The “genocide ideology” law fails on the basic principles of a good penal statute to the extent it does not put law abiding people on notice of the forbidden conduct or speech. The “genocide ideology” law does not provide sufficient and specific limits on enforcement discretion of the police; it fails on definiteness and clarity. It appears the statute is meant for other purposes, not justice.
Charles KM KAMBANDA, Dip.Phil. BA., LLB., MA. ETPM., MBA., MA. HRTs., LLM., PhD
Mugisha (lundi, 06 juin 2011 18:26)
Professor Kambanda!!!! This guy is excellent. I feel pround of having been one of his students. I feel rewarded. His analysis is always scientific. Even those cursing him, they would hardly find any gap in his reasoning. Dr. Kambanda, you are beyond. God give you that great gift of intelligence. I love you
The genocide ideology law as a tool to oppress or kill (lundi, 06 juin 2011 13:48)
The genocide ideology law is there to oppress anyone with different views.
It is not a law, it is an oppression tool to silence any Hutu or Tutsi willing to reconcile as true reconciliation, true justice can omit kagame from power
HYPERLINK « http://email@example.com » t « _blank » Alex (lundi, 06 juin 2011 11:39)
None ko mbona uru Rwanda rubuza abantu gukore ubushakashatsi kuri genocide kandi aribyo bya tuma kumenye neza ukuri kubyabaye bigatuma habaho neza ubwiyunge bushingiye ku kuri ; murabona atari amakosa koko .
Njye ndumva u rwanda rwari rukwiye kureka abantu bagakora recherche kuri génocide kuko ibintu byinshi bigaragaza ko fpr inkotanyi na Kagame aribo ba teye ubwicyanyi bise génocide kugirango bifatire igihugu kandi banakurikirane abahoze bazi ubwenge bose bababeshyerako bateguye iyi bise génocide.
Ibyo rero ndumva ari recherche sur le génocide yagararaza aho ukuri guherereye.
Amategeko azabagaruka nabo abacire imanza (lundi, 06 juin 2011 10:23)
FPR irimo kwishimira gushiraho amategeko
no guhindura itegeko nshinga uko yishakiye
nyabwo izi ko igiye kuvaho ,noneho tuzabacire imanza dukoresheje ayo mategeko yabo mabi
nibamara gucibwa imanza tuzayavanaho
natwe tuzabahanisha ayo mategeko bashizeho
tubateze iminsi ,yavuba aha
Kibeshyumuhanga (lundi, 06 juin 2011 09:47)
U Rwanda ngo rwageze ku majyambere, rufite ikorana-buhanga,….
1-Niba rapport za ONU zemeza ko 65% z’ abanyarwanda ari abatindinyakujya,25 % bakaba abakene naho 5% abaherwe, u Rwanda rwateye imbere gute?
2-Rapport zerekana ikoreshwa rya energie, rigaragaza ko mu Rwanda hari amashanyarazi +/- ku bantu 5%. Abandi ni peterori, buji n’ icuraburindi. Wakora ute ikoranabuhanga utagira amashanyarazi?
3-Mu baherwe 5% babarizwa mu mijyi, 4% nta mazi ahagije munzu zabo bagira. 1% bo n’ amahoteri bakaba bayafite. Abo 4% bituma mundobo, bakajya kumena mu misarani yo hanze. Donc ikoreshwa na 95%. Ayo ni majyambere nyabaki?
ICYOMBONA (lundi, 06 juin 2011 09:34)
GUSA MWESE MUJYE MUSHIMIRA Leprophete.fr. Muti kuki: Ari abari hanze mwari mwarabuze urwinyagamburiro, muravugaaa agahinda kagashira kandi burya Ukuli gushirira….
Ari INTORE, zabuze aho zihuragurira none zarasekewe..dore ko banazitumye kuzajya zirwana Umuhenerezo hano kuri za Sites.
Njyewe nkurikije ukuntu FPR yanga LEPROPHETE.FR Narinziko Nta NTORE yakandagira hano. NONE MUZAREBE babuzenaho bakwirwa.
Ariko NEWS TIME( KANGURA Y’ INTORE) nta mwanya itanga wo kuvuga? Nako bagira Kimwe KITWA IGIHE.COM….
Mwaba PADIRI MWE, IMANA IBONGERERE KU MIGISHA YAYO.
Jim (lundi, 06 juin 2011 08:41)
Some paople like Ng’onga think that they are more intelligent that other,bararye bari mennnnnnjye kuko abanyarwanda turi hanze ntidusinzira.Dukurikirana byose bibera i rwanda no hanze ari nako dukomeza kurya ibitabo.Reka tuyige,ndibaza ko igihe kiri hafi mukumirwa.
HYPERLINK « http://www.leprophete.fr » t « _blank » Kagame also is guilty of genocide ideology (lundi, 06 juin 2011 08:07)
CONTEXT OF GENOCIDE IDEOLOGY/CRIME
( according to this opinion, Kagame also is guilty of genocide ideology- look and compare)
Pan Butamire-Newtimes,June 4th,2011 ( check his blog)
When a Rwandan calls on other Rwandans to go “to work”, which foreign human rights activist can get the double-entente? Depending on the context, hasn’t it ever meant a call to commit genocide?
When President Kagame gives a speech boasting of his ability » to dry up/ finish the water from a barrel/ tank using a spoon « , which foreign governments supporting Kagame can get the double-antente? Depending on the context, hasn’t it ever meant a declaration/ confession of genocide ( exterminating the hutus, no matter how many they are,killing them all one by one)
Commentary:If there were no double standards in the rwandan justice system, Kagame, should have been brought to justice for Genocide ideology by now.
HYPERLINK « http://www.leprophete.fr » t « _blank » @answer to Umunyeshuli 20 (lundi, 06 juin 2011 08:00)
Sasa, reka nkubwire. Ntakibi mukumenya amakuru n’ibireba u Rwanda, ariko umuntu wiga mu wa kane secondary, nakugira inama yo kutishyushya umutwe n’ibingibi.uzaba ubitekerezaho ikindi gihe, iyi nama nakugira n’inkiyo nakagira murumuna wanjye. iga amasomo yawe, menya ubwenjye, byaba ibya science cyangwa technology, cyangwa andi masomo ukunda cyane.hari amahirwe menshi mu Rwanda kubona abanyeshuli bafite ejo hazaza heza, cyane cyane abashishikariye amasomo. simvuze ko gutekereza kubintu bya politiki ari bibi, ariko ndumva nakugira inama ko bitakurangaza. gerageza kubona 90% mubintu byose wiga. nyuma y’imyaka 10 ntabwo uza regreta izi nama.nubikora , abanyeshuli bagenzi bawe bazabona ko utanga urugero rwiza. Icyangombwa mbona cyabafasha n’uko mwabana kivandimwe, iyo byaba byashobokaga yewe ntimwite no kumenya cyane uvuga ukuri cyangwa utavuga ukuri, nimube busy with things that are going to help you in your personal lives first. when it is time to contribute to the country’s future politically, may be 15 yeas down the road, you will have formed your own opinions and convictions and not biased by whatever side and therefore your contribution will be more original and help take the country to a next level. In fact If I were you,I would stop visiting this website altogether.Ibi kandi nkubwiye ndabikubwira ku giti cyannjye nk’umuntu ukunda abana b’abanyarwanda abaribo bose ntavangura kandi ukwifuriza ibyiza mubuzima buzaza
Akabazo (lundi, 06 juin 2011 05:30)
Umuntu yavug ate? Ahubwo Kuko jye nzi neza ukuntu genocide ari ikintu gikomeye ntabwo ari igikinisho umuntu ahoza mu kanwa nkaho ariyo ntsinzi! Kubwibyo rero mbone hari ukuyipfobya kwa leta ariko ntibigaragarire Bose ! None se umwana wavutse 94 afite ingengabitekerezo ! Uwunomunsi nuko! None se ni icyaha cy’inkomoko jya numva? None se abantu b’ubwoko bumwe nibo bagira ingengabitekerezo gusa? Icyo nasaba abayobozi bacu nuko bajya bakurikirana umuntu wese uyigaragayeho yaba Hutu cg Tutsi naho ubundi ndabona Nta ejo hazaza bategurira urwanda ! Ni ugusubira mu mateka gusa!
Akabazo (lundi, 06 juin 2011 05:17)
Jye maze iminsi nitegereza politike ya gournement yurwanda n’abayirwanya ariko icyo nashoboye kubona nuko ikibazo gihari ntabwo guverinema y’ u Rwanda Yari yabasha gusobanurira impamvu inengwa ahubwo igisubizo kigaruka buri gihe ni genocide, gupfobya genocide , ingengabitekerezo ya genocide! Ikibazo none kugira NGO umuntu avuge
UKURI KUBISI (lundi, 06 juin 2011 04:38)
I am so disgusted by unnecessary and empty comments issued by Kagame’s cronies called »INTORE » on important issues such as this one from Dr.KAMBANDA!
It is indeed obsolete that without any thorough and convincing arguments on issues of high importance, these Kagame’s cronies have only one word as an answer or argument to oppose to any discussion to the extent that it has become their only argument !
That word « GENOCIDE » has become their only political weapon of Rwanda and Rwandans’ self- destruction, their financial cry for international help to international donors and frankly speaking, this word »genocide » has therefore become meaningless and worthless !!!!!!! Without that word, Kagame and his cronies have no clear politcal, social and economi policies !!!!!
Shame on you, Kagame and his cronies!!! But mind you, the whole world now know you better than ever !!!!!!! Your end is near !!!!!!
Rwogera (lundi, 06 juin 2011 04:34)
Kambanda afite inyandiko irimo ubwenge. Analysis ye irahanitse. Ni ubwambere nsomye umunyarwanda wandika iby’amategeko akabisesengurana ubutabogama kandi agatanga ingero.
Ikibabaje rero nuko mbona abasomyi benshi basabitswe n’ubuhezanguni kandi bikaba bigaragara ko Kambanda ari gucurangira abahetsi.
Nagira ngo mbibutse ko nitudashyira mu gaciro ngo twitandukanye n’abahezanguni (Abahutu n’ Abatutsi)tuzaba dukomeje gutiza umurindi abari kuducamo ibice baducukurira urwobo kandi abadukomokaho bose tuzaba turi kubasigira umurage mubi. Rubyiruko, mwime amatwi ababashyiramo urwango niyo yaba ari nyoko cyangwa so, cyangwa nyokowanyu wimwumva kuko ejo azagusiga mu mazi abira.
Ndabakunda mwese kandi nkunda n’u rwambyaye.
Kambanda and Leon Mugesera the some ideology 2 (lundi, 06 juin 2011 04:19)
The new propaganda of Hutu extremist to continuos the discrimination in Rwandese family.The ring leader:Father Thomas Nahimana,Father Fortunatus Rudakemwa,
Kambanda Charles, Leon Mugesera the some ideology ,Paul Rusesabagina,Condo,Victory Ingabire,Mbonyumutwa shingiro,Ntaganda Bernard and others.
The « Hutu Ten Commandments » (also « Ten Commandments of the Bahutu ») was a document published in the December 1990 edition of Kangura, an anti-Tutsi, pro-Hutu, Kinyarwanda-language newspaper in Kigali, Rwanda. The Hutu Ten Commandments are often cited as a prime example of anti-Tutsi propaganda that was promoted by extremists in Rwanda following the 1990 invasion by the Rwandan Patriotic Front and prior to the 1994 Rwandan Genocide.The chief editor of Kangura, Hassan Ngeze, was convicted of genocide and crimes against humanity in 2003 by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and was sentenced to 35 years’ imprisonment.
The Hutu Ten Commandments
1. Every Hutu should know that a Tutsi woman, whoever she is, works for the interest of her Tutsi ethnic group. As a result, we shall consider a traitor any Hutu who
marries a Tutsi woman
befriends a Tutsi woman
employs a Tutsi woman as a secretary or a concubine.
2. Every Hutu should know that our Hutu daughters are more suitable and conscientious in their role as woman, wife and mother of the family. Are they not beautiful, good secretaries and more honest?
3. Hutu women, be vigilant and try to bring your husbands, brothers and sons back to reason.
4. Every Hutu should know that every Tutsi is dishonest in business. His only aim is the supremacy of his ethnic group. As a result, any Hutu who does the following is a traitor:
makes a partnership with Tutsi in business
invests his money or the government’s money in a Tutsi enterprise
lends or borrows money from a Tutsi
gives favours to Tutsi in business (obtaining import licenses, bank loans, construction sites, public markets, etc.).
5. All strategic positions, political, administrative, economic, military and security should be entrusted only to Hutu.
6. The education sector (school pupils, students, teachers) must be majority Hutu.
7. The Rwandan Armed Forces should be exclusively Hutu. The experience of the October 1990 war has taught us a lesson. No member of the military shall marry a Tutsi.
8. The Hutu should stop having mercy on the Tutsi.
9. The Hutu, wherever they are, must have unity and solidarity and be concerned with the fate of their Hutu brothers.
The Hutu inside and outside Rwanda must constantly look for friends and allies for the Hutu cause, starting with their Hutu brothers.
They must constantly counteract Tutsi propaganda.
The Hutu must be firm and vigilant against their common Tutsi enemy.
10. The Social Revolution of 1959, the Referendum of 1961, and the Hutu Ideology, must be taught to every Hutu at every level. Every Hutu must spread this ideology widely. Any Hutu who persecutes his brother Hutu for having read, spread, and taught this ideology is a traitor.
Kambanda and Leon Mugesera the some ideology (lundi, 06 juin 2011 04:11)
Léon Mugesera is a Rwandan man, resident in Quebec, Canada since 1992. He is currently facing deportation from Canada for an inflammatory anti-Tutsi speech which his critics allege was a precursor to the 1994 Rwandan genocide.
An ethnic Hutu, Mugesera has been a member of the dominant Hutu MRND party, which had close ties to the military. He was MRND Vice-Chairman for Gisenyi prefecture. 
In a speech given on November 22, 1992 in Rwanda, Mugesera allegedly told 1000 party members that « we the people are obliged to take responsibility ourselves and wipe out this scum » and that they should kill Tutsis and « dump their bodies into the rivers of Rwanda. » 
Following this speech, the Rwandan Minister of Justice, Stanislas Mbonampeka, issued an arrest warrant against him for inciting hatred. He fled with his family first to the Rwandan army and then to Quebec City in Quebec, Canada. Shortly afterwards, Mbonampeka resigned as Minister of Justice in protest. 
THE TRUE STORY OF RWANDA 5 (lundi, 06 juin 2011 03:51)
During President Kagame’s leadership, the country has experienced a significant economic transformation which translated into alleviating poverty and improving the lives of all Rwandans. The real GDP growth increased from 2.2% in 2003 to 7.2% in 2010 with a peak growth of 11.5% in 2008. Overall, the average growth rate has been 7%. This was achieved through the long-term economic development plan, Vision 2020, and its medium-term strategy, the Economic Development Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS) which gives a clear direction on how to move from poverty to a middle income country. From Vision 2020, a blend of programs and policies have been formulated and implemented in several key sectors- agriculture, investment, tourism and ICT. The Green Revolution: The End of Subsistence Agriculture In 2007, His Excellency the President launched the Crop Intensification Program (CIP) as part of the Integrated Development Program (IDP) which transformed the agriculture sector. The program aimed to consolidate land and cultivate a limited number of crops (the ones most adapted to the region), to increase the use of fertilizers and improved seeds. This resulted in growth of the sector of 7.6% in 2010 against 2.7% in 2007. This program was also complemented by the ‘one cow per poor family’ targeting the neediest Rwandans.
Top Ten Global Reformer
A series of reforms have been implemented to create a conducive environment for business. Rwanda was ranked one of the top ten global reformers in the World Bank Doing Business Survey 2010, and second global reformer out of 183 countries. Rwanda is also the 9th easiest place to start a business in the world and the 6th most competitive economy in Sub-Saharan Africa according to the 2010 World Economic Forum global Competitiveness Report. These reforms have been made possible by Government of Rwanda’s commitment to a politically stable country with well functioning institutions, rule of law and zero tolerance for corruption.
Tourism on the rise
Rwanda has become widely recognized as one of the safest countries in the world. The city of Kigali is the first city in Africa to be bestowed the prestigious Habitat Scroll of Honor Award in recognition of its cleanliness, peacefulness and security. With its rich biodiversity, stunning natural beauty and excellent climate, Rwanda is becoming an increasingly popular tourist destination. Gorilla tracking in the Virungas is the country’s premier attraction, supplemented by the mesmerizing savannah and plains wildlife of Akagera National Park, the incredible biodiversity of the extensive Nyungwe rainforest and a range of hills and lakeshore beaches around the expansively beautiful Lake Kivu. In 2010, Rwanda hosted 666,000 visitors who generated US$ 200M- a 14% increase from 2009.
ICT for all
In line with the Government of Rwanda’s commitment to increase nationwide access to ICT, the rollout of fiber optic cable has been completed. The use of technology was also extended to the agricultural sector with the establishment of E-Soko- an Agricultural Market Information System that has been deployed to provide farmers with reliable, up-to-date market price information. With this infrastructure, service delivery in public and private sectors will be dramatically improved and access to information will no longer be a luxury as high–speed internet connectivity becomes affordable and accessible.
THE TRUE STORY OF RWANDA 4 (lundi, 06 juin 2011 03:47)
With the 1994 genocide, the justice system went from being characterized by weak judicial organs and a lack of lawyers to a total loss of all of its qualified professionals. In an effort to rebuild this crucial sector, the Government of Rwanda committed to establishing a justice sector capable of providing a solution to the larger number of cases, the need to for a stable environment for investment and business and the decentralization of the justice system. One of the most successful undertakings is the revival of the Gacaca court- the traditional mechanism to resolve disputes. Gacaca courts were a response to the extremely high number of genocide related cases that would have taken over 100 years to be tried. With truth telling and reconciliation taking precedence over punishment and retribution, Gacaca courts was able to prosecute 1.5 million people. Most importantly, Gacaca has become a key part of the reconciliation process
THE TRUE STORY OF RWANDA 3 (lundi, 06 juin 2011 03:46)
Coming from a period of rampant tribalism, regionalism and corruption, Rwanda had become a country of severe inequalities however the post 1994 Government undertook a number of anti-corruption measures and institutionalized non-discrimination as the framework for service delivery. Political will and the support of the public have led to the creation of institutions to fight corruption and impunity such as the Ombudsman’s Office, the Auditor General Office, the National Public Prosecution Authority, National Police, Rwanda Public Procurement Authority and the Rwandan Revenue Authority. With these efforts, Rwanda has been internationally recognized for its zero tolerance policy. Transparency International’s perception index ranked Rwanda 8th in Africa- an improvement from its 89th position in 2009. The East African Bribery Index ranked Rwanda the least corrupt country in East Africa.
THE TRUE STORY OF RWANDA 2 (lundi, 06 juin 2011 03:45)
Democracy and Democratic Processes in Rwanda
After 1994, Rwanda steadily and progressively built the foundations and institutional framework for a modern democratic polity that responds in a principled way to its deeply divided legacy. Today, with a new Constitution, separation of the three branches of power, good governance through decentralization, the fight against corruption and a new justice system, the government of Rwanda has established a credible, inclusive and effective Government.
Branches of Government
The Government of Rwanda has three branches of Government namely the Executive, Legislature, and Judiciary. While separate and independent, the work of these three branches is complementary. Executive authority in Rwanda is vested in the President and Cabinet, emphasizing both the direct electoral mandate of the president as well as the collegial nature of decision-making implicit in cabinet government. The term of office of the president is limited to two terms and President Paul Kagame is currently serving his second term. The Senate and the Chamber of Deputies Parliament is composed of the Senate and Chamber of Deputies in charge of passing laws, legislating and overseeing executive action in accordance with procedures determined by the Constitution. The Supreme Court and other Courts exercise judicial power and are independent and separate from both the Executive and the Legislative branches of Government.
A new Constitution: Free and Fair Elections & the Protection of Human Rights
The Rwandan Constitution institutionalizes a systematic electoral process, with free and fair elections and guaranteed what no Rwandan constitution had done before: the equality of all people in rights and duties and before the Law, the right to physical and mental integrity, the prohibition of discrimination of all kind, torture, application of retrospective laws and punishments, freedom of press and information, and freedom of association and assembly. It also provides for a right to education through a compulsory and free universal primary education. With offices such as Human Rights Commission, the Office of the Ombudsman and the Gender Monitoring Office, Rwanda has institutionalized the protection of human rights.
THE TRUE STORY OF RWANDA (lundi, 06 juin 2011 03:41)
BRIEF HISTORY OF RWANDA
For centuries, Rwanda existed as a centralized monarchy under a succession of Tutsi kings from one clan, who ruled through cattle chiefs, land chiefs and military chiefs. The king was supreme but the rest of the population, Bahutu, Batutsi and Batwa, lived in symbiotic harmony. In 1899, Rwanda became a German colony and, in 1919, the system of indirect rule continued with Rwanda as a mandate territory of the League of Nations, under Belgium. From 1959, Batutsi were targeted, causing hundreds of thousands of deaths and sending almost two million of them into exile. The First Republic, under President Gregoire Kayibanda, and the second, under President Juvenal Habyarimana, institutionalized discrimination against Batutsi and subjected them to periodmassacres.
The Rwandese Alliance for National Unity (RANU) was formed in 1979 by Rwandan refugees in exile, to mobilize against divisive politics and genocide ideology, repeated massacres, statelessness and the lack of peaceful political exchange.. In 1987, RANU became the Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF). On 1 October 1990, the RPF launched an armed liberation struggle that ultimately ousted the dictatorship in 1994 and ended the genocide of more than one million Batutsi and massacres of moderate Bahutu who opposed the genocide.
After Kigali fell to RPA (RPF’s armed wing) on 4 July 1994, RPF formed a Government of National Unity headed by President Pasteur Bizimungu, bringing parties that did not participate in the genocide together. In 2000, Parliament voted out President Pasteur Bizimungu and RPF appointed then Vice-President and Minister of Defense, Major General Paul Kagame as the President of the Republic to lead the coalition government. In 2003 President Paul Kagame was elected with landslide majority to serve a term of seven years. During those seven years, the country made unprecedented socio-economic and political progress and consolidated peace, stability as well as social cohesion among Rwandans.. In 2010, President Paul Kagame was re-elected to serve a second term and on a platform of rapid development for the transformation of the lives of all Rwandans.
AKANA K`IWACU (lundi, 06 juin 2011 03:30)
Ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside
Ishyaka Riharanira Demokarasi no Kurengera Ibidukikije mu Rwanda ryemera rwose ko ikibazo cy’ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside cyatangiye kera mu myaka ya 1950 nyuma y’ihirima ry’ingoma ya cyami, bigakomeza biganisha kuri jenoside y’Abatutsi yo mu 1994. Iyi ngengabitekerezo ya jenoside ni ibikorwa, amagambo n’imigambi yo kurimbura abavandimwe b’abanyarwanda, ariko kuva mu 1994, jenoside ikiri mu mitwe yacu, iyi jenoside yibasiye Abatutsi kurusha abandi bantu abaribo bose.
Turamagana byimazeyo uwariwe wese waba afite imigambi yo gusubiza inyuma igihugu, mu bihe nk’ibya jenoside yo mu 1994.
GUKUMIRA AMACAKUBIRI YANYU 2 (lundi, 06 juin 2011 03:27)
Amategeko agenga imanza z’inshinjabyaha yo muri Liechtenstein ateganya ibihano ku muntu wese uhakana, upfobya, cyangwa ushaka gusobanura ishingiro (justify) rya Jenoside cyangwa ibindi byaha byibasiye inyoko muntu hakoreshejwe amagambo, inyandiko, amashusho, ikoranabuhanga, ibimenyetso by’intoki (gestures), ibikorwa by’ubugizi bwa nabi n’ibindi.
Ngoga ati “Mu gihe muri ibyo bihugu hari amagambo atemerewe gukoreshwa, bo babyita kwamagana ihakana rya jenoside cyangwa kurwanya imvugo y’urwango, mu gihe kuri twe bavuga ko tubikoresha muri politiki.”
Umushinjacyaha Mukuru Ngoga akaba asanga ikibazo gihari ari uko abo muri ayo mahanga bafata ayo mategeko yabo nk’abuza urwango mu bantu, ariko u Rwanda rwabikora bigafatwa nabi, ati « ibi ni ugufata ibintu ukubiri (double standards/deux poids, deux mésures). »
Bwana Ngoga asoza agira ati » nyuma y’aya mategeko yose y’i Burayi, uretse agasuzuguro basanzwe bagirira Afurika, ni iki wagaya itegeko ry’u Rwanda? »
GUKUMIRA AMACAKUBIRI YANYU (lundi, 06 juin 2011 03:27)
U Rwanda sirwo rwonyine ruhana icyaha cy’ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside
Nyuma y’aho itegeko rihana ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside mu Rwanda rikomeje kuvugwaho cyane n’abantu batandukanye nk’itangazamakuru mpuzamahanga, imiryango mpuzamahanga iharanira uburenganzira bwa muntu, ndetse na bamwe mu banyarwanda, Umushinjacyaha Mukuru w’u Rwanda Martin Ngoga yagize icyo abivugaho.
Umushinjacyaha Mukuru Ngoga akaba avuga ko amategeko ashyirwaho hakurikijwe ibyo gihugu gikeneye muri icyo gihe cyangwa mu gihe kizaza. Ati “ariko n’ubwo amategeko asabwa gukurikiza amahame mpuzamahanga, ntibiba bivuze ko amategeko y’ibihugu byose agomba gusa (conformity does not mean similarity).”
Bwana Ngoga yemera ko koko itegeko ry’u Rwanda rihana icyaha cya Jenoside ryagiye rivugwaho nabi n’itangazamakuru mpuzamahanga n’imiryango itagengwa na Leta, aho avuga ko barifashe nk’aho nta handi riba uretse mu Rwanda, ko kandi ryagiyeho mu rwego rwo kuniga ubwisanzure mu rubuga rwa politiki n’uburenganzira bwo gutanga ibitekerezo.
Itegeko ry’u Rwanda rihana icyaha cya Jenoside, ibyaha byibasiye inyoko muntu n’ibyaha by’intambara ryashyizweho mu mwaka w’2003. Riteganyiriza ibihano umuntu wese uzaba werekanye mu magambo, mu nyandiko, mu mashusho, cyangwa mu bundi buryo ko ahakanye Jenoside cyangwa ayipfobeje, cyangwa agerageje gusobanura ishingiro (justify) ryayo.
Ngoga ati “nyamara no mu bihugu byateye imbere hari amategeko nk’ayo, yewe anamaze igihe kinini kurusha iri ryacu.”
Urugero ni nk’itegeko nimero 1891 ryo mu Bufaransa rigenga ubwisanzure bw’itangazamakuru rivuga ko “umuntu wese uhakana kimwe cyangwa bimwe mu byaha byibasiye inyoko muntu bivugwa mu ngingo ya 6 y’ibyemezo by’Urukiko Mpuzamahanga rwa Gisirikare bikubiye mu masezerano y’i London yo kuwa 8 Kanama 1945, byakozwe n’abari abambari b’imitwe y’abagizi ba nabi ivugwa mu ngingo ya 9 y’ibyo byemezo cyangwa byakozwe n’umuntu wabihamijwe n’Urukiko rwo mu Bufaransa cyangwa rwo ku rwego mpuzamahanga azahabwa ibihano bikubiye mu ngingo ya 24 y’iri tegeko.”
Aha ni ukuvuga ko uzahakana ibyakozwe n’Abanazi (nazis) n’abambari babo mu gihe cy’intambara ya kabiri y’isi azabihanirwa.
Icyemezo cy’inama y’Ubumwe bw’u Burayi ku byaha by’irondaruhu n’ibyo kwanga abanyamahanga (xenophobia) cyo giteganya ibihano mu bihugu byose bigize uwo muryango ku muntu uzerekana ko yishimiye, ahakanye cyangwa apfobeje ibyaha bya jenoside, ibyibasiye inyoko muntu n’ibyaha by’intambara biteganywa n’ingingo za 6,7 n’iya 8 zigenga Urukiko Mpuzamahanga Mpanabyaha.
Ibihano bikomeye kandi biteganywa n’amategeko yo muri Australia (The Australian National Socialism prohibition Law), mu Bubiligi (Belgian Negationism Law), no muri Israel (The Israel Denial of the Holocaust Law) ku bahakana jenoside yakorewe abayahudi mu ntambara ya Kabiri y’isi. Luxembourg yo iteganya ibihano ku bahakana itsembabwoko ry’abayahudi (Holocaust) n’andi matsembabwoko yose yemewe ku rwego mpuzamahanga.
ITEGEKO RIHANA RIKANAKUMIRA (lundi, 06 juin 2011 03:24)
inteko rusange y’abadepite mu gihembwe kidasanwe yarateranye yemeza umushinga w’itegeko rihana icyaha cy’ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside.
Perezida w’itsinda ryateguye uwo mushinga w’itegeko, Depite Kalisa Evariste yasobanuriye inteko rusange y’abadepite ko ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside yongeye kugaragazwa n’ubushakashatsi bwakozwe na sena y’u Rwanda.
Depite Kalisa yasobanuye ko bumwe mu buryo bwo gukumira no kurandura ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside ari ugushyiraho itegeko rihana icyaha cy’ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside, kuko iyo ngengabitekerezo ya jenoside itari yarateganirijwe ibihano mu mategeko u Rwanda rugenderaho.
Ku bana bagaragayeho ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside, hagaragajwe ko hajya hahanwa ababyeyi babo cyangwa abarezi babo kuko aribo abo bana bakomoraho iyo ngengabitekerezo ya jenoside.
Tubibutse ko mu bushakashatsi bwashyizwe ahagaragara na sena y’u Rwanda muri Mata 2007, bwagaragaje ko mu muryango nyarwanda ariho hasigaye higishirizwa ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside. Kandi ko ubukene bukabije buha icyuho gikabije amacakubiri n’ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside. Hasabwe ko umuryango nyarwanda wakwitabwaho ndetse hagafatwa n’ingamba zihashya ubukene.
U Rwanda rufatanije n’ibihugu byo mu karere bihuriye mu ihuriro Amani, byasabye ko ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside yarwanwa mu karere kose bihuriyeho.
IGNACE K. PhD.,MBA.,BBA. (lundi, 06 juin 2011)
CHARLES KM KAMBANDA,Dip.Phil.BA.,LLB.,MA.ETPM.,MBA.,MA.HRTS.,LLM.,PhD.
nGAHO NDEBERA IYI NJIJI YIZE KOKO,YAGIYE MU MACAKUBIRI,KANDI KUYOBORA KAMINUZA Y,U RWANDA BYARAMUNANIYE KUBERA KWIRIRWA YISWERERA ABANYESHURI YARERAGA…UBWO NAWE URAVUGA KOKO???AMA DIPLOMA YO URAYAFITE ARIKO SE YAKUMARIYE IKI UDASHOBORA KUMENYA ICYIZA N,IKIBI???UBWO URASHAKA KUYOBORA TURA KUZI???ARIKO SE UZAYOBORA GUTE NAWE WARANANIWE KWIYOBORA????NAWE WAFASHWE NI NDWARA YAFASHE NAHIMANA,NA RUDAKWEMWA????NDABONA ARI ICYOREZO CYABAFASHE NKIYI NDWARA YATEYE I BURAYI E.COLI.ARIKO NAMWE MWARAGARAGAYE TURI KUBASHAKIRA UMUTI,IYO INDWARA YAGARAGAYE UMUTI NTUGORA,CG URUKINGO.
Church History of Killing Tutsis 11 (lundi, 06 juin 2011 03:14)
leaders went into exile in July 1994, as the genocide was brought to an end. Father Munyeshyaka’s reluctance to acknowledge the nature or extent of the 1994 genocide was certainly shared by many other members of the Rwandese Catholic Church. But there were others who suffered at the hands of the interahamwe militia and others still who were killed for their courage or their ethnicity. Many clerics used their position to save lives with individual acts of heroism that will never be forgotten by survivors. Instead, Father Wenceslas Munyeshyaka is remembered by Jean-Bosco Muganza and many other survivors of St. Famille as the priest who: ‘directed the militiamen; demoralised the refugees; and sowed hatred between the Hutu and Tutsi refugees’. » [end of quoting from African Rights, April 6, 1999]