Ubucakura buhatse ubucakara: FPR mu mugambi w’igihe kirekire wo kwegurira ubutaka bwa rubanda abavukanambuto bayo!

Ubucakura buhatse ubucakara: FPR mu mugambi w’igihe kirekire wo kwegurira ubutaka bwa rubanda abavukanambuto bayo!

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 Yanditswe Seburanga Jean Leonard*

Source: https://muriho.blogspot.be

Benshi mu banyarwanda basobanukiwe neza umwuka wa gihake wihishe inyuma ya politiki y’ubutaka ya leta ya FPR, ariko ntibashobora kwerura ngo babyamagane ku mugaragaro kuko mbere yo guhuguzwa ubutaka FPR yabanje kubambura umudendezo n’ubwisanzure bwo gutangaza ibyo batekereza. Benshi bakora bivuye inyuma ngo biyubakire amazu, ariko birinda kumva ijwi iryo ari ryo ryose ribibutsa ko kubaka inzu ku butaka ukodesha n’aho byaba byitwa ‘ubukode burambye’ ari nko kubaka ku musenyi. Icyakora, bamwe mu bareba kure ntibiyemerera na gato kugokera ubusa bubaka ku butaka leta ishobora kubambura igihe ishakiye. Ahubwo bakoresha imbuto z’umurimo w’amaboko yabo mu kugira uruhare mu mahinduka azasubiza rubanda uburenganzira busesuye ku butaka bwaba ubwo bihahiye cyangwa ubwo barazwe n’abasekuruza. Bene abo ni abo gushyigikirwa bakaba n’urugero rwiza ku batifuza kuzahora mu bucakara bwa FPR n’abibone bayo.

Mu bucakura bwo mu rwego rwo hejuru bukubiyemo gukoresha amategeko akandamiza, uburiganya, ubuhendo n’igitugu, leta ya FPR yatesheje agaciro ihame ryari risanzwe rigenderwaho ry’uko mu Rwanda ubutaka ari umutungo wa rubanda. Bigaragara neza ko ibi leta ya FPR yabikoze igambiriye kwegurira buhoro buhoro umutungo w’ubutaka agatsiko kayiyoboye n’abambari bako. Ikibazo si uko leta ya FPR yemeye ko abantu ku giti cyabo bahabwa inkondabutaka (= freehold title), ni ukuvuga uburenganzira bwo kugira umutungo bwite w’ubutaka (= inkondabutaka). Ikibazo ni ivangura rigaragaramo, riheza abanyarwanda bafite amikoro aringaniye n’acirirtse n’abafite amikoro ahagije ariko bafatwa nk’aho badakwiye ibyiza nk’ibyo.

Amategeko yimika ubusumbane

Itegeko Ngenga No 43/2013  ryo kuwa 16/06/2013 rikuraho Itegeko Ngenga n° 08/2005 ryo kuwa 14/07/2005 rigena imikoreshereze n’imicungire y’ubutaka mu Rwanda mu ngingo yaryo ya 6, igika cya 2 n’icya 4 rigiri riti:

Uburenganzira ku nkondabutaka butangwa gusa ku butaka buriho inyubako n’ubuzikikije bwonyine bukenewe kugira ngo ibyo bwagenewe bishobore kuzikorerwamo.

Iteka rya Minisitiri N° 009/16.01 ryo kuwa 23/08/2011 (ryuzuzwa n’Iteka No 002/14 ryo kuwa 14/04/2014) rigena uburyo bwo kubona impapurompamo z’umutungo bwite w’ubutaka riteganya ibi bikurikira:

Ubutaka burebwa niri teka ni ubugenewe INYUBAKO zo guturamo, izinganda, izubukungu nubucuruzi, izimibereho myiza yabaturage, izumuco nizubumenyi nkuko biteganywa mu ngingo ya 6 yItegeko Ngenga n° 08/2005 ryo kuwa 14/07/2005 rigena Imikoreshereze nImicungire yUbutaka mu Rwanda.1 (reba ingingo 2).

UMUSHORAMARI wese wujuje ibyangombwa biteganywa namategeko agenga ibikorwa bishorwamo imari ku butaka, ashobora gusaba guhabwa impapurompamo zumutungo bwite wubutaka.  (reba ingingo ya 4).

Mbere yuko uwasabye impapurompamo zumutungo bwite wubutaka azihabwa agomba kubanza kugirana na Leta amasezerano yUBUGURE bwubutaka asabira impapurompamo zumutungo bwite. (reba ingingo ya 11).

Ushishoje neza, usanga abashobora kubona inkondabutaka ari abantu bakeya cyane, bujuje nibura ibi bikurikira:

  1. Kuba ari abanyemari ku rugero rwo kwitwa ABASHORAMARI.
  2. Kuba barubatse INYUBAKO zihenze mu bibanza basabira ibyemezo by’inkondabutaka –ibishushanyo mbonera by’imijyi n’ahandi hagenewe guturwa bigaragaza uburyo amazu leta yifuza ko yubakwa arenze kure ubushobozi bwa benshi mu banyarwanda akaba inzozi ku muturage usanzwe.
  3. Kuba baragiranye na Leta amasezerano y’UBUGURE bw’ubutaka –ibi bitandukanye cyane no kugirana na Leta amasezerano y’ubukode (= leasehold).

Mu by’ukuri, ni bake rwose mu banyarwanda bashobora kuzuza ibisabwa abifuza guhabwa inkondabutaka. None se ni bangahe mu baturarwanda bafatwa nk’abashoramari? Ni bangahe bashobora kubaka amazu ahenze kuriya? Ni bangahe leta yakwemerera kugirana na bo amasezerano y’ubugure bw’ubutaka? Ni mbarwa rwose!

Kugarura politiki y’ibikingi

Mu gihe cya mbere y’ubukoloni, abantu bake cyane biyumvagamo ko basumbya abandi ubunyarwanda bigaruriye ubutaka bwa rubanda hakoreshejwe uburiganya, igitugu n’ubuhendo, maze babukoresha nk’inzuri ngari cyane zitwaga ibikingi. Abaturage basanzwe b’abahinzi ntibagiraga uburenganzira bwo kugira umutungo bwite w’ubutaka. Bahingaga aho batishije bakishyura amaboko yabo binyuriye ku mirimo inyuranye bakoreraga ba nyir’ibikingi cyangwa bagatanga igice cy’ibyo basaruye bitabujije ko bashoboraga konesherezwa nta nkurikizi.

Mu gushyiraho umwihariko wa bamwe mu mitungire y’ubutaka mu gihe cya none, leta ya FPR yari igamije kugarura iyo politiki y’ibikingi buhoro buhoro –n’ubwo inkondabutaka bahabwa zitagamije kubegurira ubutaka bwo kororeraho amatungo, kuba bubakaho amazu rubanda ruyakikije ihatirwa gukodesha ntaho bitaniye na gahunda yahozeho mu gihe cy’ubuhake. Nibura bitatu mu bigize ibisabwa abifuza inkondabutaka (kuba usaba inkondabutaka ari UMUSHORAMARI, wubatse INYUBAKO ZIGEZWEHO kandi wamaze kugirana na leta AMASEZERANO Y’UBUGURE bw’ubutaka) byatoranijwe n’abacurabwenge ba leta ya FPR mu bucakura bwinshi bagamije inyungu ebyiri z’ingenzi:

  1. Gushyiraho urukuta rukumira rubanda (= abantu bose bari mu mimerere itabemerera kuzuza ibyo leta isaba abashaka inkondabutaka) mu buryo bwo kubahindura abacakara batunzwe no guhinga ubutaka butari ubwabo bakaba ari nabwo buzima bazaraga abana babo. Ibintu biteye ku buryo nta yandi mahitamo abaturage baba bafite uretse guhinga ibyo bategetswe kuko baramutse batabigenje batyo bakwirukanwa ku butaka bakoreshaga maze bugakodeshwa abiteguye kubaho mu buzima bwa cishwa aha. Ku rundi ruhande, kuberako abacurabwenge ba FPR bazi ko hafi ya buri wese ugize icyo aronka yihutira gushaka uko yakwiyubakira inzu, bateze abo mu cyiciro cy’ubukungu buringaniye umutego wo guhora ibanyunyuzamo amafaranga y’ubukode bw’ibibanza bubatseho kuko n’ubwo baba bafite ubushobozi bwo kubaka amazu babamo n’ayo bakodesha abandi, ayo bubaka ntashobora kuzuza ibisabwa ngo bahabwe inkondabutaka. Abo mu icyiciro cyo hasi n’igiciriritse ntibubaka kuko ababigerageje basenyerwa. Babaho mu BUPAGASI bw’igihe cyose. Umutungo wabo ni uwimukanwa gusa, ugizwe ahanini n’ibyo baba bariye n’ibyo baba banyoye. Iyo barwaye indwara ikaze bahuhurwa no kuba ntacyo bafite bakwitabaza wenda nk’inzu ngo babe bayigurisha bishyure ikiguzi cy’ubuvuzi baba bakeneye.
  2. Guha intore butore (= ba nyir’igihugu) uburyo bwo kwigarurira buhoro buhoro umutungo w’ubutaka ubusanzwe ubarwa nk’umutungo leta itunze ku nyungu za rubanda, bakawuhindura umutungo bwite w’abantu ku giti cyabo. Aba, leta iborohereza kurushaho ibakingira ikibaba mu kunyereza amafaranga ava mu ikode abaturage batanga buri mwaka ku bibanza bibabarurwaho, anyunyuzwa mu baturage mu misoro y’umurengera n’aturuka mu bucuruzi leta ibafashamo kubona amasoko yuzuyemo uburiganya n’ubugome. Amafaranga babonye muri ubwo buryo niyo basubira inyuma bakayagura ubutaka bwa rubanda bakanayakoresha mu kubwubakaho, maze inyubako zakuzura, leta ikabubegurira ubuziraherezo binyuriye mu kubaha inkondabutaka.

Tekereza kuri ibi witonze. Mu mwaka wa 2015, mu turere tw’umujyi wa Kigali uko ari dutatu habaye amahererekanywa y’ubutaka 14,914.2 Niba abegukanye ubutaka bwahererekanijwe muri uwo mwaka baranahawe inkondabutaka, ufatiye ku gipimo mpuzandengo ko ikibanza kimwe mu byahererekanijwe cyaba cyari gifite nibura 25mX20m (= 500km2), uwo mwaka wonyine 10% (= 7.5km2) by’ubutaka bwose bwubatseho amazu y’abaturage mu mujyi wa Kigali (yaba ayo guturamo yaba ay’ubucuruzi cyangwa ay’inganda (= 75km2)), bwaba bwaramaze kwigarurirwa burundu n’abantu ku giti cyabo. Mu yandi magambo, umujyi wa Kigali wazaba waramaze kuba igikingi cy’itsinda rito ry’abantu ku giti cyabo mu gihe kitarenze imyaka 10, byakabya ikaba 20 cyangwa 30. Uko umujyi wazagenda waguka, niko ubutaka ubusanzwe bwagenewe ubuhinzi bukaba ubu budashobora gutangwaho inkondabutaka hakurikijwe amategeko ariho, bwazagenda buhindurwamo ubwo kubakwaho maze na bwo bukigarurirwa na bene muzehe n’abambari babo. Amaherezo benshi mu bagize rubanda bazibona barimo gukodesha amazu n’abantu ku giti cyabo ku butaka bwahoze ari ubwabo cyangwa ubw’abakurambere babo.

Kubera ko abahawe inkondabutaka baba bahawe ubutaka mu buryo bwa burundu, uko iminsi izagenda ihita ni na ko ubutaka ubu bubaruye kuri rubanda mu buryo bw’ubukode burambye buzagenda bwigarurirwa na bene ingoma. Ibyo bazabigeraho bakomeza kwifashisha leta yabo haba mu guhatira abaturage kububagurisha cyangwa mu kububambura hakoreshejwe uburyo bw’amategeko abogamira ku basizwe amavuta y’ubutore, agaheza rubanda. Umuntu yakwitega ko hatagize igihinduka, mu gihe runaka kiri imbere rubanda izaba itakigira uburenganzira ubwo ari bwo bwose ku butaka; ba sebahinzi bakazaba basigaye mu rwangaro rw’igihe cyose, abanyamugisha bagatungwa no gukoropa amagorofa y’intore butore nabwo kandi babanje kubihakirwa!

Niba igihe leta ya FPR yashyiragaho amategeko y’ubutaka agenderwaho ubu itari igambiriye kugarura politiki y’IBIKINGI n’UBUHAKE, niyasubiremo maze ihe abanyarwanda uburenganzira bungana mu bihereranye n’imitungire y’ubutaka.

Amayeri no kujijisha rubanda

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Itegeko Ngenga No 03/2013/OL ryo kuwa 16/06/2013 rikuraho Itegeko Ngenga n° 08/2005 ryo kuwa 14/07/2005 rigena imikoreshereze n’imicungire y’ubutaka mu Rwanda mu ngingo yaryo ya 2, igika cya 11 n’icya 16 risobanura ko inkondabutaka ari ‘uburyo bwo gutunga ubutaka buha nyirabwo uburenganzira bwa burundukuri bwo‘ naho ubukode burambye (= leasehold) bukaba ‘amasezerano y’igihe kirekire Leta igirana n’umuntu kugira ngo akoreshe ubutaka anasarura ibibukomokamo, ariko akayishyura igiciro bemeranijweho‘.

Kubw’ibyo, imvugo ngo ‘mfite ubutaka‘ cyangwa ngo ‘naguze isambu‘ mu by’ukuri ikwiye gukoreshwa gusa n’abantu bahawe inkondabutaka. Abahawe impapuro izi zikunze kwitwa ‘ibyemezo bya burundu‘ nyamara ari ‘amazerano y’ubukode‘ bw’ubutaka yakozwe hagati yabo na leta, ntibakwiye gukoresha bene izo imvugo; ahubwo bakabaye bakoresha imvugo ngo ‘nkodesha ubutaka‘, ‘natisha umurima‘, ‘natijwe ikibanza‘ cyangwa ‘naragijwe isambu‘. Ibitari ibyo ni ukwihenda no kugwa mu mutego w’itekinika rya leta ya FPR. Bitinde bitebuke, n’abatabyumva neza ubu bazabisonukirwa maze bumirwe.

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Ni koko, ubu abashobora kwivugaho ko batunze ubutaka mu Rwanda, ni abantu bake, bagomba kuba biganjemo intore butore, bamaze kubona impapuro nkondabutaka, nyuma yo kuba baragiranye na leta amasezerano y’UBUGURE bw’ubutaka bubatseho. Ibi bisobanura ko umubare munini w’abanyarwanda badashobora guha abana babo n’ababakomokaho umurage w’ubutaka kuko aho amasezerano y’ubukode azarangirira, leta izaba ishobora kutemera kongera kububakodesha. Abafite inkondabutaka nibo BONYINE bashobora kuraga urubyaro rwabo umutungo w’ubutaka, kuva ku bo bibyariye n’abuzukuru kugera ku bubivi n’ubuvivure n’abazakomoka kuri abo. Buri wese yakwifuza kugira uburenganzira nk’ubu. Niyo mpamvu leta nk’iya FPR, ibugenera bamwe ikabwima abandi, iramutse ivuzweho ko itabereyeho ineza ya rubanda ataba ari amakabyankuru. Ahubwo yagaragaje ko ibereyeho gutetesha intore butore, abandi bagasigara bahatanira kuba INKOMAMASHYI n’ ABATERUZI B’IBIBINDI.

Inama kuri leta ya FPR

Ihame ry’uko leta ishobora gukora ibinyuranye n’icyifuzo cy’umubare munini w’abaturage, ikabikora igamije guteza imbere bamwe, NTIRIRI MU NYUNGU ZA RUBANDA cyane cyane iyo rikoreshwa n’abiyumva ko barusha abandi UBUNYARWANDA. Ni koko kuba intore butore zibwira ko zifite ubushobozi bwo guhanga imirimo, gutekerereza abatarasizwe amavuta y’ubutore no kubabungabungira umutekano, NTIBIZIHA UBUBASHA BWO KWIGARURIRA IBYA RUBANDA. Ihame rikwiye kugenderwaho ni uko abanyarwanda bose bareshya imbere y’amategeko n’ubwo batanganya ubushbozi mu by’ubukungu. Icyemezo icyo ari cyo cyose gikwiye gushyirwa mu bikorwa ari uko gishyigikiwe na benshi mu banyarwanda kandi mu mudendezo n’ubwisanzure.

Kubw’ibyo, abayobozi bahagarariye abaturage bakwiye kuba baratowe mu bwisanzure hashingiwe ku ihame rya demokarasi mu matora ry’uko buri jwi ry’umuntu rigira agaciro nk’ak’iry’undi. Ariko kubera ubwikunde n’ubutamenya bushobora kugaragara ku rwego urwo ari rwo rwose bigatuma iryo hame ry’ibanze rya demokarasi ritubahirizwa, abaturarwanda bakeneye kuba bafite umudendezo wo kubitangaho ibitekerezo, kubyamagana no guharanira ko bihinduka kandi abanyamakuru bagashobora kubitangaza nta mususu cyangwa ubwoba bwo gutotezwa. Ibyo ni ngombwa kugirango ababa bashaka kuriganya abandi mu matora no gushyiraho politiki n’amategeko nsumbanyabantu bacibwe intege no gutinya ko rubanda yabimenya ikabiburizamo. Kuko ubu atari ko bimeze mu Rwanda, ishyaka rya FPR riramutse rishishikajwe n’ineza ya rubanda ryakora ibi bikurikira:

  1. Guhindura mu buryo bwihutirwa amategeko yose agaragaramo ivangura, hakubiyemo n’ay’ubutaka, rigamije gutanga uburenganzira bumwe kuri bose. Ikibazo cy’amategeko asumbanya abantu kimaze gukemuka, hakurikiraho kuyahuza n’ibyo rubanda yifuza. Iyo ntera ya kabiri yakorwa gusa ariko uko ubutegetsi bwa FPR buriho ubu buhinduye imikorere bukemera demokarasi n’ubwisanzure mu gutanga ibitekerezo.
  2. Gukora amavugururwa akenewe, rigafungura urubuga rwa politiki n’urw’itangazabitekerezo, rigamije gutuma amatora y’ubutaha akorwa mu mudendezo na demokarasi isesesuye. Abayobozi batorwa muri ubwo buryo bazasuzuma politiki y’ubutaka n’amategeko agenga imitungire n’imikoreshereze yabwo, bakabihuza n’ubushake bwa benshi.

 

Inama ku bahinzi n’aborozi

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Abakoresha ubutaka bukorerwaho ubuhinzi, n’ubwo ari bo benshi mu gihugu, ntibashobora guhabwa ibyemezo by’umutungo bwite w’ubutaka. IMVUGO IKUNZE GUKORESHWA NA LETA NGO ABATURAGE NIBAJYE GUFATA IBYEMEZO BYA BURUNDU BY’UBUTAKA BWABO YUZUYEMO UBURIGANYA N’UBUHENDO BIKABIJE KUKO ICYO ABATURAGE BAHABWA ARI KONTARO Y’AMASEZERANO Y’UBUKODE, umuntu yagereranya n’inyandiko y’amasezerano yo kwatisha umurima.

Kubera ko umwuka wasunikiye FPR gushyiraho amategeko aheza rubanda mu mitungire y’ubutaka ntaho wagiye, bituma umuntu atakwitega ko izabikosora, niba ufite icyemezo cy’amasezerano y’UBUKODE bw’ubutaka wagiranye na leta ngo ubukoreshe mu buhinzi cyangwa ubworozi, ukwiye kwihatira gusobanukirwa neza ibi bikurikira:

  1. Umutungo wawe utimukanwa ugarukira GUSA ku nyubako cyangwa ibiti biri kuri ubwo butaka. UBUTAKA NYIRIZINA SI UBWAWE NA MBA.
  2. Leta ishobora kubukoresha icyo ishatse igihe cyose imyaka yagenwe mu masezerano y’ubukode mwagiranye yaba irangiye. Ariko na mbere y’uko iyo myaka irangira, leta ihisemo kubukwimuraho (= expropriation) yabikora NTA NGURANE Y’UBUTAKA cyangwa INDISHYI yabwo iguhaye. Uramutse nta nyubako cyangwa ibiti wari ubufiteho, WAGENDA AMARA MASA. Amagambo ya nyakubahwa Ndayisaba Fidèle, wari umuyobozi w’umujyi wa Kigali igihe yayavugaga, aboneka mu kinyamakuru Igihe cyo ku ya 28 Weruwe 2013, agaragaza neza igihagararo cya leta kuri iyi ngingo. Yasobanuye ko mu gihe cyo kwimurwa na leta ubutaka butishyurwa kuko ari ubwayo, maze atsindagiriza ko ibikorwa biburiho ari byo byonyine bitangirwa indishyi cyangwa ingurane.3
  3. Usanze bitabangamiye inyungu zawe mu buryo bumwe cyangwa ubundi, wagerageza kubyaza ubutaka wakodeshejwe umusaruro mwinshi ushoboka, waba inkwakuzi ukanihutira gukora ibishoboka byose ugamije gutera bya biti bibangikanywa n’ibihingwa cyangwa ishyamba ahatubatse amazu hose. Utabigenje utyo, mu gihe byaba bibaye ngombwa ko wimurwa, NTA NGURANE, NTA N’INYISHYU IYO ARI YO YOSE wakwitega guhabwa kuri aho hantu. Ariko nanone wazirikana ko leta ya FPR ifite uburyo bwinshi bwo kunyunyuza imitsi ya rubanda rw’abahinzi n’aborozi no kubajujubya, hakubiyemo n’uburenganzira bwo gufatira ubutaka ku mpamvu yishyiriyeho.4 Bityo hari ababonye ko ibyo byo gutera ibiti n’amashyamba no kubaka amazu nabyo bidahagije cyangwa ko mu mimere imwe n’imwe bishobora gusa nk’aho nta nyungu irimo, maze bahitamo gukora ibindi babona ko bitabashyira mu buja mu mayeri cyangwa ngo bibagushe mu gihombo. Ibyo ari byo byose, nyuma yo kumenya ibi, buri wese, nawe urimo, afite uburyo yagira amahitamo meza mu bihereranye n’imikoreshereze y’ubutaka YATIJWE na leta.
  4. Uramutse uhisemo guharanira ko ibintu bihinduka hagamijwe ko RUBANDA NAYO IHABWA INKONDABUTAKA waba ufashe umwanzuro nyamibwa.

 

Inama ku bubatse ku butaka bakodesha

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Waba uri umuganga, umuhinzi, umusirikari, umupolisi, umucungamutungo, umunyapolitiki, umudipolomate, umushoferi, umunyamategeko, umunyamakuru, umwarimu, umushakashatsi…waba ukorera umushahara, wikorera ku giti cyawe, uri umushomeri cyangwa ukiri umunyeshuri…uwo waba uri we wese, URARUHIRA UBUSA NIBA NTACYO UBONA WAKORA KUGIRANGO UHABWE ICYEMEZO CY’UMUTUNGO BWITE W’UBUTAKA KURI BURI KIBANZA WUBATSEHO CYANGWA UTEGANYA KUBAKAHO. Uku ni ko kuri, n’ubwo kutaryoheye amatwi! Uraruhira ubusa niba ayo winjiza buri kwezi (bikoroheye, wiyushye akuya, bigusizemo imvune ku mubiri no mu bwonko, ugombye gutanga inyoroshyo cyangwa bishobora kuba byanaguteranije n’abavandimwe, inshuti cyangwa abafatanyabikorwa) uyashora mu bikorwa byo kubaka amazu no kugura ibibanza ku butaka bw’u Rwanda…KERETSE wenda niba ubigura ugahita ubigurisha abandi mu buryo bwo kwishakiramo inyungu ya vuba na bwangu. Ariko nabwo abo ubigurisha ari ntacyo bizabamarira ni ukubapfunyikira amazi!

Kutagira inkondabutaka mbere yo kubaka hamwe no gushidikanya ko umuntu yazayihabwa amaze kubaka ni byo byatumye abo leta y’u Bufaransa yasabaga gufatanya nabo kubaka ahahoze ikigo ndangamuco cy’u Rwanda n’u Bufaransa (Centre d’Echanges Culturels Franco-Rwandais) batabyitabira, maze amaherezo izibukira icyo kibanza. Ni koko, inkuru zo mu binyamakuru bitandukanye zigaragaza ko ubwo Ambassade y’u Bufaransa yatumiriraga abashoramari babishaka gufatanya nayo kuhubaka inzu igezweho nk’uko ubuyobozi bw’umujyi wa Kigali bwabisabaga, baciwe intege no kuba batari biteguye gushora imari yabo ku butaka bafiteho ubukode bw’imyaka 30 gusa, maze bakomeza guseta ibirenge kugeza ubwo Leta y’u Rwanda ifashe icyemezo cyo kwisubiza icyo kibanza.5 Uko ni na ko bizagenda ku banyarwanda bafite ibibanza ariko badafite amikoro yo kubyubakamo inzu ziri ku rwego leta ishaka ari nako kutagira inkondabutaka bituma nta n’undi witeguye gufatanya nabo cyangwa ngo abahe inguzanyo ihagije. Urugero, tekereza ku byabaye ku bantu bari barashoye amafaranga yabo mu gace k’ubucuruzi ko mu mujyi wa Butare kitwa ‘mu cyarabu’. Abari bahafite amazu y’ubucuruzi bahatiwe kuyafunga kuzageza igihe bazaba bamaze kuyasimbuza amagorofa agezweho! Mbese, umuntu yakwitega ko abatazabishobora bazemererwa kongera gufungura amazu yabo ngo bayakoreremo? Oya rwose. Ahubwo bashobora kuzafatwa nk’abadashoboye gukoresha neza ubutaka batijwe maze babwamburwe buhabwe abandi biteguye kubuzamuraho amagorofa nk’uko leta ibyifuza.

Clare Rant, impuguke mu by’imitungire y’imitungo itimukanwa, asobanura iby’ubukode bw’ubutaka n’inkondabutaka muri aya magambo: ‘having a leasehold [= ubukode burambye] means a person has the right to use a property for a set period of time, usuallly in return of a rent. At the end of the term, the property reverts back to the freehold owner [= nyir’inkondabutaka]. In contrast, a freehold is where the property is owned for an unlimited period of time‘. Ugenekereje mu Kinyarwanda, mu biheranye n’ubutaka, byavuga ngo ‘ukodesha yemerewe gukoresha ubutaka akodesha mu gihe runaka GIFITE IHEREZO akenshi anatanga amafaranga y’ikode. Nyuma y’icyo gihe uburengazira bwose bwo kubukoresha busubizwa nyirabwo ubufiteho inkondabutaka‘.6 Emma Lunn, umwanditsi w’inkuru y’ikinyamakuru The Guardian yo ku ya 3 Gashyantare 2013 yunze mu rya Clare Rant yifashishije amagambo ya Sebastian O’Kelly, umuvugizi w’ikigo cyazobereye mu by’ubukode burambye, Leasehold Knowledge Partnership, aho asobanura impamvu zo kwitondera iby’ubukode ku mitungo itimukanwa agira ati: ‘naïve leaseholders buy a flat and think that –more or less– they have bought the equivalent of a freehold home. In fact, they have bought a long-term rental…’, bishatse gusobanura ngo ‘abatereba kure bashobora kwibeshya ko kugura ikibanza gikoreshwa mu buryo bw’ubukode bihwanye no kugura ubutaka mu buryo bwa burundu, nyamara baba bibeshya kuko icyo baba baguze ari ubwo bukode nyine bw’igihe runaka‘.7

Inama ni uko warushaho gushakisha uburyo wabonamo inkondabutaka. Kubera ko utakwitega ko bizakorohera kubigeraho cyane ko uwahisemo kuzigenera bamwe akazima abandi ntaho yagiye kandi nta n’ikigaragaza ko azisubiraho agaha abanyarwanda bose uburenganzira bungana. Ushobora gusanga wakungukirwa kurushaho no guharanira ko ibintu bihinduka, maze RUBANDA NAYO IGAHABWA INKONDABUTAKA, aho gukomeza kugoka wubaka ku musenyi. Ni koko kubaka ku butaka udashobora kubonaho inkondabutaka ni ukubaka ku musenyi kubera ko, niba bitaranatangira, igihe kizagera ubwo abantu bazajya baha agaciro amazu yubatswe hakurikijwe imyaka isigaye ngo ubukode bw’ikibanza yubatseho irangire, nk’uko bigenda ahandi.5, 6

Inama ku mpirimbanyi za demokarasi

20160731_140437

Bimaze kugaragara ko leta ya FPR igenda ihigika rubanda ku bintu ubusanzwe abaturage bakagombye kuba bafiteho uburenganzira ntayegayezwa. Kubera izo mpamvu, Impirimbanyi za demokarasi n’abandi bafite uburyo bwo gucukumbura no gutangaza uburiganya, ubusambo n’ubuhendo bwa FPR mu bintu binyuranye bigize imibereho y’abanyarwanda, bashobora kwiringira badashidikanya ko nibakoresha ubwo buryo bafite bagafasha rubanda gutahura aho ikwiye kugira amakenga, abanyarwanda batazabura kubibashimira. By’umwihariko, abashobora kubona amakuru yimbitse ku mitangire y’impapuromamo z’ubutaka bazakore icyegeranyo cy’umubare w’abamaze kubona impapuro nkondabutaka n’abatarazibona cyangwa batanemerewe kuzihabwa muturere twose tw’igihugu kandi babitangarize rubanda. Nanone, hazasobanurwe icyo leta ya FPR iba igamije iyo ifashe icyemezo cyo gukura za hegitari z’ubutaka runaka mu mutungo RUSANGE w’igihugu ikabushyira mu mutungo BWITE wayo, niba atari ukwishyiriraho uburyo bwo kuzarangira ibuhaye intore butore zayo (reba itangazo ry’ibyemezo by’inama y’abaminisitiri idasanzwe yo ku wa 24 Kamena 2016, ingingo ya 9, umurongo wa 4)!8 Mu gihe ibyo bitaraba, abirya bakimara ngo bubake mu bibanza bafiteho uburenganzira bw’ubukode gusa bakwiye kubanza kwibaza niba leta izafata inyumbako zabo nk’izabahesha inkodabutaka. Naho ubundi, kwigora wubaka inzu ku kibanza ufiteho uburenganzira bw’ubukode bw’imyaka makumyabiri cyangwa mirongo itatu gusa, ntibitanga icyizere cyane cyane ku muntu uzi neza imikorere ya FPR!

NOTES

*Seburanga J. Leonard ni umwalimu wahindutse impirimbanyi, umwenegihugu wahindutse impunzi, rubanda rugufi wiyemeje gukora politiki. Inyandiko z’ubushakashatsi yakoze zigaragara mu bitangazamakuru mpuzamahanga, birimo ibitangazwa na Elsevier, Springer, Taylor & Francis n’abandi. Yigishaga akanakora ubushakashatsi muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda kugeza ahunze ubutegetsi bw’igitugu mu Ugushyingo 2015. Ubu aba mu gihugu cy’u Bubiligi.

1Itegeko Ngenga n° 08/2005 ryo kuwa 14/07/2005 rigena Imikoreshereze n’Imicungire y’Ubutaka mu Rwanda ryasimbuwe n’Itegeko Ngenga No 03/2013/OL ryo kuwa 16/06/2013. Nyamara iri tegeko rishya mu ngingo yaryo ya 3 riteganya ko ‘mu gihe atarahindurwa, amategeko, amateka n’amabwiriza yashyiraga mu bikorwa Itegeko Ngenga n° 08/2005 ryo kuwa 14/07/2005 rigena imikoreshereze n’imicungire y’ubutaka mu Rwanda akomeza kubahirizwa mu ngingo zayo zose zitanyuranije n’itegeko rigenga ubutaka mu Rwanda‘.

2Rwanda Natural Resources Authority, 2016. Land transfers in 2015. Retrieved from:http://www.rnra.rw/fileadmin/user_upload/documents/land_doc/Land_Transfers_by_District_in_2015.pdf (last accessed 14 June 2016).

3Eugenie Umuhoza, 28 Werurwe 2013. Kigali: abagera ku bihumbi 10 bagiye kwimurwa nta ngurane y’ubutaka. Byakuwe kuri: http://www.igihe.com/amakuru/u-rwanda/kigali-abagera-ku-bihumbi-10-bagiye-kwimurwa-nta-ngurane-y-ubutaka.html (last accessed 15 June 2016).

4Ingingo ya 15 y’amasezerano y’ubukode igira iti: ‘Nk’uko biteganywa n’Itegeko Ngenga cyangwa itegeko rigena uburyo indishyi itangwa ku butaka bukodeshejwe cyangwa bwataye agaciro, Leta igomba guha Ukodesha indishyi ikwiye mu gihe cya vuba. Ukodesha ntabwo ahabwa indishyi igihe ubutaka bufatiriwe hakurijwe ibiteganywa n’Umutwe wa VI w’Itegeko Ngenga‘ (Reba ku ipaji y’inyuma y’urupapuro rwanditseho ngo ‘AMASEZERANO Y’UBUKODE BURAMBYE’ mu zigize ibyangombwa by’ubutaka wahawe n’Urwego rw’Umubitsi w’Impapurompamo z’Ubutaka).

5Pierre Boissolet, 4 Juillet 2014. Rwanda : le centre culturel franco-rwandais de Kigali démoli à la pelleteuse. Tiré de: http://www.jeuneafrique.com/51106/politique/rwanda-le-centre-culturel-franco-rwandais-de-kigali-d-emoli-la-pelleteuse (last accessed 29 May 2016)>>.

6Clare Rant, 14 October 2011. What’s the difference between leasehold and freehold? Retrieved from: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/property/advice/propertyclinic/8824968/Whats-the-difference-between-leasehold-and-freehold.html (last accessed 16 June 2016).

7Emma Lunn, 3 February 2013. Beware the ‘cheaper’ leasehold option that could cost more in the long run. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/money/2013/feb/03/beware-lease-hold-cost-more (last acessed 16 June 2016).

8Igihe, 24 Kamena 2016. Itangazo ry’ibyemezo by’inama y’abaminisitiri idasanzwe yo ku wa 24 Kamena 2016. Byakuwe kuri: http://www.igihe.com/politiki/amakuru/article/itangazo-ry-ibyemezo-by-inama-y-abaminisitiri-idasanzwe-yo-ku-wa-24-kamena-2016 (last accessed 9 July 2016).

 

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