Kinyarwanda Français English



Is EAC without Tanzania thinkable?



Parution: Monday 18 November 2013, 12:02


Par:Dr Alexis Habiyaremye






Since 2004, the East African Community (EAC) has embarked on a fast-tracking program aimed to transform the regional block into a federated state with unitary institutions and a common decision making process. Whereas this program was meant to further the integration process between all five member states, the presidents Kagame of Rwanda, Kaguta Museveni of Uganda and Kenyatta of Kenya seem to have recently attempted to sideline Tanzania in by undertaking decisions in a series of tripartite meetings without inviting their Tanzanian counterpart. On November 7, 2013, President Kikwete told the Tanzanian Parliament that his country will never quit the EAC despite the combined efforts of his three partners to isolate him. Is an EAC without Tanzania ĂĽberhaupt imaginable?

 

Being a core founding member of the East African community, Tanzania has remained one of its clearest voices, promoting an East African integration based on a Pan-African vision. The EAC was initially formed in 1967 by Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda with the aim to foster economic, social and cultural cooperation in order to achieve a shared development. After the community was dissolved in 1977 mainly as a result of political disagreement between the member states, Tanzania, as the anchor of the regional peace and stability, played a crucial role in its revival. In 1999 a new treaty re-establishing the East African Community was signed by Kenya, Tanzanian and Uganda. The re-instituted EAC entered into force on July 7, 2000 and was later joined by Rwanda and Burundi in 2007 as new member states.

 

All along, Tanzania has shown commendable leadership in shaping the vision of the Community and facilitating the accession of these new members. The fast-tracking the East African Federation (FTEAF) project was a program initiated in 2004 by the East African heads of state to accelerate the EAC integration process and lead it to its ultimate stage of a political federation of East African states by the horizon of 2013. However, as a result of varying degrees of divergence in the implementation speed between the member states, even the common currency stage has so far not been reached. Given the central position that Tanzania occupies in the regional block and its pivotal role in shaping the vision for the East African integration, it is pertinent to reflect on the political, diplomatic and economic perils that can result from the attempt to sideline it.

 

1.Political risks

 

Although the odds that these isolation attempts lead to a new collapse of the EAC are very slim, forging a so-called “coalition of the willing” can lead to dysfunctional EAC institutions and paralyse the decision making of the Community. The political and economic losses from such a paralysis are considerable, especially in the three countries advocating the coalition. Before creating divisions among member states without a mandate of the concerned population, it is important to bear in mind the blame that was laid on Idi Amin’s dictatorial behaviour for the collapse of the initial EAC, although there were many other reasons that led to its dissolution. It’s hardly imaginable that any of the three presidents wants to be remembered in the same register as Idi Amin in the EAC annals.

 

Alienating Tanzania in the EAC also carries the risk of reign re-igniting tensions in the entire Great Lakes region that Tanzanian leaders are laudably contributing to stabilise. Since independence in 1963, Tanzania has indeed been the anchor of stability in a turbulent East Africa. Its current contribution in the UN Force Intervention Brigade has been a key factor in ridding North-Kivu of the murderous M23 militia preying on Congolese population and its resources. Dar-es-Salaam has often acted as a tireless peace broker and both presidents Kagame of Rwanda and Museveni of Uganda owe much of their current power to the support they received from Tanzania when they were fighting the Milton Obote regime. Kagame was trained in intelligence gathering in Tanzania when he was serving in Museveni’s bush war. The Tanzanian government has also played a crucial role in the Arusha negotiations aimed at finding peace in Rwanda after Kagame’s Rwandese Patriotic Army invaded the tiny central African nation in 1990. For Museveni and Kagame, snubbing Tanzania now is therefore a remarkable way of returning the favour to a country that propelled them to their current political power. Such an unthankful retribution will not go unnoticed among the political classes of their respective countries.

 

By blaming Tanzania for not taking decisions against the wish of its population, the tripartite initiative also bears the risk of alienating their own citizens. Tanzania’s EAC partners have namely accused Dar-es-Salaam of holding up the Community’s integration process, but a close examination of the dynamics underlying the proposed free movement of goods and services reveals that those accusations need to be nuanced. Indeed, whereas close to 70 percent of surveyed Kenyan households responded to be in support of the fast tracking project, a large majority of Tanzanians (close to 80 percent) are wary of a too quick opening of their country to their neighbours. They namely fear the flooding of their markets by imports from more industrialized Kenya and a widespread land grab if citizens of land-scarce Uganda and Rwanda were to be granted land rights in Tanzania. A government that respects the will of its people won’t impose the integration in a tempo that does not allow its citizens the time necessary to digest the changes and adapt to them.

 

It would therefore be a political miscalculation for any leader in the other EAC member states to think they can force the Tanzanian government to push the fast tracking program down the throat of Tanzanian people. Using autocratic methods to implement the fast-tracking program carries the risk of alienating the citizens in a country where they enjoy political maturity. This could lead to a feeling of disconnection in their own populations and provoke an erosion of the support for the integration process.

 

 

Instead of showing hostility toward the Tanzanian government, EAC partners would do better by learning from it and show more understanding for the concerns of Tanzanian people and those of their own citizens at home. It would also be more helpful if they deployed more effort to support Dar-es-Salaam in reassuring its citizens that they also stand to gain from opening their country to their EAC brothers. The respect shown by the Tanzanian government to its citizens is not only a necessary accountability to the citizenry, but it also reflects a democratic practice that will benefit all EAC citizens in general.

Indeed, only an integration process at a rhythm and in conditions fully understood and accepted by Tanzanian people will prepare them to welcome their neighbours with open arms and interact with them in a way that is advantageous to everybody, come the day that all borders will go open for the free movement of capital, goods and services. Trying to speed up EAC integration without Tanzania is therefore like attempting to push harder on the gas pedal after throwing the engine out of the car for displeasure that the engine is not fast enough.

 

2.Diplomatic miscalculation


Attempts to isolate Tanzania diplomatically are also doomed to fail as Dar-es Salaam’s current leadership has a much stronger standing in international arenas when compared to any of those who seek to collude against it. For Kenyan president Kenyatta, who won his presidency in a free and fairly contested election, siding with the autocratic rulers of Rwanda and Uganda is forging a counter-natural alliance. While he might be lured by their anti-ICC speeches because of the current accusations against him, everything indicates he is smart enough to come sooner rather than later to the realisation that the place of a Kenyan president is on the side of democratically elected leaders like Kikwete rather than among autocrats whose political power is mainly based on constitutional manipulations and rigged elections. Dar-es-Salaam’s soft power is therefore likely to be much more effective than Kagame’s and Museveni’s anti-ICC rhetoric in wielding positive influence to avert ICC meddling in Kenyan politics.

 

Tanzania Parliament

 

Kagame and Museveni, who orchestrated the invasion of Zaire in 1996, are responsible for the worst crimes committed in the great lakes region. ICC accusations against Uhuru Kenyatta are in no way comparable to the horrendous crimes committed by Kagame’s army during his invasion of the Democratic Republic of Congo, as documented in the 2010 UN Mapping Report. Kagame’s anti- ICC rhetoric is therefore more an attempt to shield himself from prosecution for own crimes, rather than an expression of solidarity with Kenyatta, who enjoys a strong support among his own people. From that perspective the political risk of siding with autocrats to isolate Tanzania is rather considerable in a young democracy like Kenya. Tanzania, rather than Kagame’s Rwanda, is thus the most natural partner for Kenya in the EAC, not only because of closer cultural affinity but also because of the higher intensity of their exchanges and their shared weight in the Community as role models of good governance for their smaller, landlocked partners. This is what Kenyan president seems to have quickly understood when he started mending his relations with Tanzanian president Kikwete.

 

By its dual membership of SADC and EAC, Tanzania also plays a pivotal role in regional politics and has the potency to impact the decision making in key African diplomatic circles. Its successful role in support of peace in North–Kivu through its participation in the UN Force Intervention Brigade alongside South Africa underscores this growing importance of its leadership in the region. Rather than being suspicious of this influence, Tanzania’s EAC partners should understand that they can benefit from it as Dar-es-Salaam acts as a junction between these regional groupings and facilitate a broader integration between them for the realization of the Pan-African vision. Because, ultimately, in the face of powerful external players vying for the control of its resources, all Africa will have to unite or perish.

 

3.Economic self-castigation

 

Finally, attempts to isolate Tanzania are also economically unsound. Although all partners stand to gain from a fully fledged free movement of goods and services between the member states, it does not take a sophisticated economic analysis to understand that the three countries whose presidents have been trying to isolate their Tanzanian counterpart are those that stand to gain the most from having a strong Tanzania in the more integrated community. The country’s sheer landmass of 947,300 square kilometers represents the most important resource of arable land in the whole Community. Its fertile soil has the potential yield enough food to ensure the Community’ food security. The country has also plenty of natural resources and has already attracted the interest of China and US for its economic potential as underscored by this visits by both Chinese president Xi Jinping and US president Barack Obama earlier this year.

 

Moreover, Tanzania’s strategic position along the Indian Ocean makes of the country the most obvious gateway to central African interior. Free movement of goods and services with Tanzania is crucial for Burundi, Rwanda and the resource-rich provinces of North- and South-Kivu in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. With their excess labour and limited land resources, land-locked Rwanda and Uganda cannot afford to create an East African community without Tanzania. This is especially true for Rwanda, whose access to international markets would be made much easier by the development of modern railway-link to Dar-es-Salaam port. The alternative route through Uganda and Kenya to the port of Mombasa is much longer and therefore offers a much more expensive option for a country struggling to muster the needed financial resources to invest in vital transportation infrastructure. For the landlocked EAC members, boycotting the Dar-es-Salaam route because of the caprices of adventurous leaders would therefore prove to be an economic suicide in the long run.

 

Dr Alexis Habiyaremye

Antalya, Turkey.








Kanda ahanditse download uteresharije iyi ndirimbo kubuntu
Ngurira icyayi


2015-03-05 06:32:01

i#383744


coach  dit:



Hello! Coach Outlet Store Online Elle displays a collection of the best accessories from Milan Fashion Week. Parisian-based streetwear label ASSK took inspiration from modern day surveillance, technology glitches . Coach Factory Outlet Full disclosure: while we still have a bottle of red on hand to toast Olivia Pope's many perfect outfits, we're counting the minutes till. The mostly genderless garments include silhouettes that draw from the anonymity of uniforms, making for a fresh collection from the burgeoning brand. Coach Outlet Online Cool white and black are complemented with bursts of stone grey and lemon, with prints incorporating warped glitch visuals and slogans. Emma Stone wowed in bright gold and Scarlett Johansson looked amazing in jade. Coach Factory Outlet Online trying to escape kidnappers. But the one thing they've all got going for them? Coach Factory Outlet which is why we partnered with JCPenney to share how to bring the hues into your wardrobe. Michael Kors Outlet We loved all the vibrant colors of the red carpet this award season, colorful event. Red Bottoms Shoes When it comes to translating the spirit of the Big Apple it doesn't get more Michael Kors Outlet As you might expect, we're playing stylist, too, and dressing the stars in Fall '15. Read on to see who's wearing what Michael Kors Outlet Online and be sure to let us know if you agree with our selections in the comments. Louis Vuitton Outlet You know, the whole "April showers bring May flowers" thing. Coach Outlet Store Online Candice Swanepoel, and four other models to tell us about their favorite and most flattering styles from the new collection. Here's Coach Outlet but we've got a feeling the dresses below were made for the red carpet. Coach Outlet Milan Fashion Week Gucci review: Alessandro Michele makes small steps in the right direction Coach Factory Outlet Most of the time when we spot a gorgeous dress on the runway Coach Outlet Store Online New York City bred some of the most progressive and innovative artists the world has ever seen. Coach Handbags we've picked out the best rain gear to keep you dry (and chic!) until summer arrives at last. Coach Factory Outlet From quirky caps to girly galoshes, we've found everything you'll need to ride out spring's storms in style. Coach Factory Outlet Brits 2015: Red carpet round up, from Paloma Faith to Kim Kardashian Coach Factory Outlet 'Don't Fuck With Me Force Field' and lemme tell ya, the force is strong in this one. Coach Outlet (and a multitude of other little things that are probably too boring for me to write about here). tiffany and co Of course,there's still the rainy season to get through. Coach Outlet we asked Alessandra Ambrosio, what they had to say Coach Outlet Store Online and would like to invite you to learn more about their story. Coach Outlet We're supremely grateful for the opportunity to meet Vinny Cha$e and Kid Art Coach Factory inspiration, current and future projects. Valentino Shoes office to chat with us - answering the questions many people have about their come up, Hermes Belts Two particular contemporary artists hailing from the Kate Spade Outlet Online African-American neighborhood that has positioned itself at the forefront of Kate Spade Handbags Say goodbye to the affordable Kate Spade shop - The Cut Kate Spade Outlet ensuring I'm always giving my very best. Kate Spade Outlet Online I'm trying to step it up at every level, so I'm not just a boss, Michael Kors Outlet Online you have to begin with your face. After all, that's where they're likely to spend all of their time if you're awake. Michael Kors Outlet Shop Michael Kors for jet set luxury - designer handbags, watches, jewelry, shoes, women's and men's clothing and more. Michael Kors Outlet this Zen Collection Cord Corral ($65) is downright lovely to look at. Michael Kors Outlet which is much smoother and might wear better over the years? Michael Kors Outlet And right now this look just feels right. Michael Kors Outlet Online Find Michael Kors & MICHAEL Michael Kors at Dillards.com Outlet Michael Kors Online Browse Michael Kors Clothing, Shoes, Bags & Accessories Sale. Find deals on both Michael Kors and MICHAEL by Michael Kors Collections. Michael Kors Outlet Ski sunglasses protect the eyes from sun exposure. Ski lovers like the adventure and excitement of skiing in winters and just cannot seem to keep away Louis Vuitton Paris Fashion Week 2015: Chanel works its magic in Karl Lagerfeld hothouse Louis Vuitton Outlet For the second time an Metiers d'Art show clashes with a major fashion event Louis Vuitton Outlet Store Save on Apparel, Home Items & More- Shop Macy's Hot Ticket Sale Today! Louis Vuitton Outlet Not Another One! Find Out Which Fashion Brand is Closing Its Doors Now Louis Vuitton Here's a trend I can fully commit to! Louis Vuitton Outlet official website. We offer Insurance, Savings, Investments & Retirement plans Giuseppe Zanotti Shoes Shop Giuseppe Zanotti Shoes at Saks. Chanel Handbags Up To 70% Off Designer Brands. Gilt Now Ships to Hong Kong! Chanel Handbags the other from Chanel.I know what you all must be thinking The North Face dorky heavy-heeled wooden clogs and sandals this season. This editorial styled by Geraldine Saglio from Vogue Paris's North Face Outlet Favorite Shoes: Manolo Blahnik BB Pumps Hermes Bag Shop the Hermes Watch Collection at The Official Online Boutique Today. Burberry Outlet Online Shop women's bags & handbags from Burberry including shoulder bags Burberry Handbags Shop Burberry Handbags on Sale! All the Sales, All in One Place. Chanel Handbags History of label and profiles of Coco Chanel and current creative director, Karl Lagerfeld. Image gallery of collections and boutique locations. Prada Outlet Prada S.p.A. is an Italian luxury fashion house, specializing in ready-to-wear leather and fashion accessories, shoes, luggage. Prada Handbags - 70% OFF Buy authentic Prada handags 2015 collection from cheap prada Outlet 100% quality Guaranteed Prada Handbags Sunglasses can give you instant James Dean cool, Audrey Hepburn glamour Marc By Marc Jacobs Shop Marc By Marc Jacobs Styles. Free Shipping $99+ at Lord & Taylor Celine Handbags Celine Bag 2014 -70% OFF - Celine Handbags Outlet Store Online Ray-Ban Sunglasses Ray-Ban is the global leader in premium eyewear market and by far the best-selling eyewear brand in the world True Religion Shop the Latest from True Religion! FREE 2-day Shipping & FREE Returns! Oakley Sunglasses Oakley Sunglasses at Over 6.000 shops & 23 Mil products! Polo Ralph Lauren Coco wants to meet, plus more fascinating celebrity Twitter posts and words of wisdom below. tiffany and co Enjoy complimentary shipping on all Tiffany orders of $150 or more. Ray-Ban Sunglasses Largest Online Ray Ban Selection. All Styles/Colors/Sizes - Shop Now! Oakley Sunglasses The evolution of fringe has been one of fascination for me. Oakley Outlet Sunglasses Oakley Sunglasses For Sale 80% OFF ! Ray-Ban Outlet Store Online As we witnessed last week during New York Fashion Week, Kesha's style has completely transformed, and we're absolutely loving her new look. Oakley Sunglasses Check out the entire selection of sunglasses on Amazon, including top styles from popular brands. Abercrombie And Fitch Today's fashion news includes an interview with Karl about the latest Chanel collection... Hollister Clothing Store The 27-year-old - who turns 28 this Sunday - has gone from face paint, an excessive amount of glitter and unruly hair to a sophisticated-chic wardrobe. Oakley Sunglasses By Replica Sunglasses are an essential tool in safeguarding the health of your eyes and the surrounding tissue. Ray-Ban Sunglasses Sunglasses 2012: Designs to Suit Your Taste And Personality Abercrombie And Fitch Luisa via Roma Firenze4Ever Style Lab, Part 3: Obsess to Impress Abercrombie Clothes The Pocket Change Shopping Blog is your one-stop Toms Outlet Timberland: The brand was founded by Nathan Swartz in 1973 and quickly became known for its durable Celine Handbags high-end Outerwear proved to be an important category this season, and we saw even more salable styles for fall 2015 during Las Vegas market. Ray-Ban Sunglasses Official Site - Shop the Widest Selection Online. Ralph Lauren Outlet Would You Shop a Kendall and Kylie Jenner Topshop Collab? Polo Ralph Lauren Outlet The Shoes I'm Obsessed With For Spring: a moodboard Valentino Shoes Here's new mom Scarlett Johansson prancing around L.A. with her family yesterday afternoon Toms Shoes Outlet Online toms shoes outlet sale here,with high quality cheap toms shoes and toms outlet store True Religion Jeans We All Have Black Booties, Right? 25 Ways to Style Them True Religion Outlet Shop The Official Site Today. Enjoy Free Shipping and Easy Returns.outlet online sale! True Religion Jeans Buy True Religion jeans - NORDSTROM Free Shipping & Returns Every Day! Red Bottoms Shoes and looking like one of the hottest moms on the entire freaking planet while doing so! And busting out her bodacious bosom and cleavage in a flimsy (and slightly see-through) t-shirt. hoochie mama! Literally!

2014-07-26 11:12:09

i#363864


may  dit:



Coach Factory Outlet The proportion of American firms Coach Factory Outlet who think business conditions are improving Coach Outlet in the country fell to 28% this year compared with 43% in 2012 Coach Online Outlet according to a report published Coach Factory Outlet by the American Chamber of Commerce Coach Outlet Store in China on Thursday Coach Outlet Store Although only 19% said things Coach Outlet Online were getting worse Coach Factory Outlet there is a perception Coach Factory Online that progress on market opening Coach Factory Outlet has ground to a halt Coach Outlet Store Online Progress in some areas Chanel Handbags such as moves to make life easier Louis Vuitton Outlet Online for private hospitals Louis Vuitton Outlet has been offset Louis Vuitton Belt by backsliding in others Hermes Belt The chamber is exasperated







Comments from 1 to 2 of (2)

©Leprophete-Umuhanuzi  Sun, 29 Mar 15 03:03:46 +0000(UTC) All rights reserved