Guhuza UBUTAKA cyangwa guhuza UGUTAKA?! Leta ya FPR yari ikwiye gusaba imbabazi ku bwo gushonjesha abaturage no kubatindahaza!

Gatesire

Yanditswe na Gatesire Théodette*

Source : muriho.blogspot.be

Kwambura abaturage ubutaka cyane cyane ubw’ibishanga n’inkuka; kurandura ibihingwa nk’amasaka, ibijumba, imboga n’urutoki, ubusanzwe bifite uruhare runini mu buzima bwa rubanda; guhatira abahinzi gushyira mu bikorwa gahunda yo guhinga igihingwa kimwe kuri bose iherekejwe n’iteganyabikorwa rikoranywe ubuswa cyangwa ubugome; uburiganya mu gukwirakwiza amafumbire no kudafasha abaturage gushaka isoko ry’umusaruro ukomoka ku byo baba bahatiwe guhinga n’aho ribonetse abahinzi bagashyirirwaho ibiciro bitajyanye n’igishoro cyakoreshejwe kugirango uwo musaruro uboneke, ni isoko y’igihombo kitagira urugero ku bahinzi n’intandaro yo gutindahara n’iy’inzara ihoraho mu bice bimwe by’u Rwanda.

 

U Rwanda ni igihugu gito ahanini kigizwe n’imisozi, kikaba kimwe mu bihugu by’Afurika bituwe kurusha ibindi kuko kuri buri kilometero kare haba hatuye abaturage basaga 400 kandi abarenga 80% bakaba batunzwe n’ubuhinzi.1 Iyo miterere y’u Rwanda n’imibereho y’abarutuye ituma buri muhinzi aba afite ubutaka buto bwo guhingaho. Kubw’ibyo, hakwiye kubaho itandukaniro rinini cyane hagati y’uburyo ubuhinzi bw’umwuga bwakorwa mu Rwanda n’uko bukorwa mu bihugu byateye imbere, aho usanga bukorwa n’abantu bake cyane bafite aho babukorera hagari bihagije higanjemo ibibaya n’ikoranabuhanga ryateye imbere. Ibyo bituma buri gihingwa cyiharira ubuso bunini cyane, kikanatanga umusaruro ushimishije bitabaye ngombwa ko rubanda ishorwa mu bihombo.

Kutita ku miterere yihariye y’u Rwanda

Mbere y’ibyemezo by’inzaduka byatangiye kwigaragaza cyane muri politiki y’ubuhinzi nyuma y’aho ishyaka rya FPR ryigaruriye ubutegetsi mu Rwanda, wasangaga buri wese mu bahinzi ahitamo igihingwa ashaka akurikije ibyo we n’umuryango we bakeneye ndetse n’ibyo yasagurira isoko uko bimushobokeye. Ahari ibishanga bihingwamo ho wahasangaga ibihingwa ahanini byabaga bigenewe gutunga abaturage igihe cy’izuba ryinshi hamwe n’ibikoreshwa cyane mu guhahira imijyi nk’imboga z’ubwoko bunyuranye, ariko nabyo byabaga byahinzwe ku mahitamo y’abahinzi bakurikije ibikenewe ku isoko n’ibyabaha inyungu nyinshi kurushaho. Iyo ibishanga byabaga bikoreshejwe n’amashyirahamwe y’abahinzi mu guhinga igihingwa kimwe nabwo byakorwaga ku bushake bw’abaturage cyangwa bigakorerwa ku butaka butari busanzwe bukoreshwa n’abaturage mu buhinzi ngo bibe byatera abatibona muri iyo gahunda igihombo kirenze icyakwihanganirwa, ari na ko leta ikora ibishoboka byose kugirango umusaruro ubunetse ube ufite isoko kandi ryiza. Aho ni nk’ahahingwaga umuceri n’ibisheke.

Kuva mu mwaka wa 2008, mu Rwanda hashyizweho gahunda yo guhuza ubutaka ndetse himakazwa politiki yo guhinga igihingwa kimwe ku buso bunini bivugwa ko hari hagamijwe kongera umusaruro w’ibiribwa ndetse no gukora ishoramari mu buhinzi muri gahunda yiswe Crop Intensification program (CIP).1 Abaturage bahatiwe guhuza ubutaka kuko, nk’uko byavuzwe haruguru, buri wese aba afite isambu ntoya cyane ugereranyije n’ubuso bukenewe kugira ngo buhingweho igihingwa cyashyizwe imbere. Ibyo byakuruye ibihombo bikomeye cyane ku baturage kuko abayobozi bo mu nzego z’ibanze bagombye kurandura ibihingwa byari bisanzwe biteye ku butaka bwagombaga guhuzwa. Mu bihingwa byibasiwe bigakururira abaturage igihombo gikabije, harimo ibijumba ubusanzwe byafatwaga nk’ingabo ikingira inzara mu banyarwanda ari nabyo byavuyeho imvugo ngo ‘umukungujumba‘, amasaka yafatwaga nk’igihingwa cyubashywe kubw’imikoreshereze yayo yihariye mu muco nyarwanda (nko mu bijyanye n’umuganura) n’urutoki rwafatwaga nk’igihingwa nyamibwa kubera ko kiramba mu murima kandi kigashobora kugoboka umuturage igihe cyose mu buryo butari bumwe –inshuro nyinshi uwabaga afite urutoki rwiza n’ibindi yabaga abifite, akaba umuhungu mu bahungu.

Kutita ku mvune n’ugutaka kwa rubanda

Umuntu wese usobanukiwe iby’ubuhinzi n’umusaruro wabwo ntagushidikanya ko anasobanukiwe imbaraga bisaba umuhinzi kuva mu itera kugeza igihe cy’isarura. Ibihingwa byose biravuna, ariko reka dufate urugero rumwe rw’igihingwa cy’urutoki. Nyuma yo gutegura umurima, gushaka imbuto no kuzitera, kurufumbira, kuruhingira, kurukonyorera, kurusharirira, gutega insina zibikeneye imihembezo no kurusasira ni imirimo ihoraho kugira ngo umuntu agire umurima w’urutoki rutanga umusaruro mwiza. Benshi bazi akamaro bene urwo rutoki rugira mu guhashya inzara kubera ko urutoki rwiza ruhoramo ibitoki bishobora gusarurwa. Mu gushyira mu bikorwa gahunda yo guhuza ubutaka no guhinga igihingwa kimwe, harimbuwe intoki zifite agaciro kanini kuko ahenshi habaga harateganyirijwe igihingwa cy’ibigori. Ikibabaje ariko ni uko umusaruro w’ibyo bigori udashobora kuziba icyuho cy’icyo gihombo ku baturage. Bite se ku bindi bihingwa? Imigozi y’ibijumba, amasaka n’imboga z’ubwoko bwinshi byaranduwe inshuro nyinshi cyane kandi buri gihe abaturage barira. Mbese ni impuwe kuba ubutegetsi bwa FPR bwaragiye buhitiramo abaturage igihingwa runaka bumaze kubategeka kurandura ibyo bari batezeho amaramuko? Oya rwose! Ibaze ko mu murima wezemo ibigori, umuhinzi adashobora no gucamo ikigori na kimwe ngo acyokereze umwana we nta mususu! Iyo abikoze aba yububa kandi yikanga ko umuyobozi yamubona akamuhana.

ibigoli

Si amakabyankuru! ibi bigori birimo kuribwa n’inyoni, uwabihinze ntiyakoraho na kimwe uwamutegetse kubihinga ataramuha uburenganzira bwo gusarura! Ibaze nawe gusya utiteze irobe cyangwa kuragira izo udakama! Ni byo abanyarwanda bita kugokera ubusa cyangwa kuruhira agatsi! Mu zindi ndimi ho babyita ‘slavery’ cyangwa ‘esclavage’!

Politiki y’ubucakura bugamije ubucakara

Mu by’ukuri kuba habaho ubuhinzi buteye imbere mu Rwanda ntako bisa. Guhitamo ibihingwa birwanya inzara, kwagura ubuhinzi no kubukoresha mu gushaka imari, gushakira abahinzi imbuto nziza, gukwirakwiza ifumbire mu bahinzi no kubaha inama z’ababihugukiwemo yaba ari intambwe nziza mu mibereho myiza y’abaturage. Ariko umuntu ureba kure iyo yitegereje uko bikorwa, avumbura amacenga n’ubucakura bukabije bubyihishe inyuma.

Kubera ko abaturage bashoboraga kwinangira ntibashyire mu bikorwa izo politiki zibangiriza zikanabahenebereza, leta ya FPR ibigiranye iryenge, yashyizeho inzitizi zo mu rwego rw’amategeko zituma umuturage wabikora yakwisanga mu bihombo by’urukurikirane. Urugero, kuko yari izi ko abaturage bashobora guhitamo kuraza imirima aho guhinga ibyo bahatiwe, yashyizeho itegeko riyiha uburenganzira bwo gufatira ubutaka bw’uwaba agerageje kubikora yitwaje ko budakoreshwa neza.** Kuko bimeze gutyo, ni bake bashobora gutinyuka gudahinga ibyo leta itegetse. Nanone, kubera ko leta yategetse abaturage kuzibukira umuco wabo wo kubika imbuto zikomoka ku musaruro wabo ikabategeka kujya bategereza izo ibazaniye, akenshi zibageraho imburagihe, umuhinzi yatakaje ubushobozi bwo guhingira igihe abishakiye. Ni na ko bigenda ku mafumbire bahabwa.

Iyo imyaka yeze, leta ni yo itanga uburenganzira bwo gusarura, ni na yo ishyiraho igiciro cy’umusaruro ikanagena abemerewe kuwugura no kuwushyikiriza inganda. Mu by’ukuri umuntu yakavuze ko rubanda yahindutse ABAGERERWA, ariko sibyo kuko n’ubwo umugererwa nawe yakoreshaga ubutaka butari ubwe, yahingaga icyo ashatse, gusa akamenya ko agomba guha nyir’ umurima amaturo bigendanye n’uko umusaruro we uhagaze –umuntu yabigereranya no gutanga icyatamurima. Nanone umuntu ashobora kwibaza niba rubanda ahubwo itarabaye ABAPAGASI. Nabyo si byo; umupagasi arahembwa, yaba atanyuzwe n’igihembo agasezera akajya ahandi kandi ntabihanirwe. Urebye neza, usanga abahinzi bo mu Rwanda rwa none babayeho nabi birenze iby’abagererwa n’abapasi. Ubuzima barimo bwujuje ibisabwa ngo bwitwe UBUCAKARA (= ‘slavery’ mu cyongereza cyangwa ‘esclavage’ mu gifaransa) ku mpamvu zikurikira:

  1.  Bahinga ubutaka butari ubwabo, babeshywa ko babukodesha mu buryo burambye ariko mu by’ukuri bashobora kwamburwa igihe icyo ari cyose –ni ukuvuga ko bahingira nyiri ubutaka ari we leta ya FPR.
  2. Imirimo yose bakora mu mirima bahingamo, bayikora ku mabwiriza ya nyir’ubutaka (= leta ya FPR) mu buryo butagoragozwa, badashobora kumwungura igitekerezo na kimwe kuko bamutinya nawe akaba atiteguye kubatega amatwi –ni ukuvuga ko baba mu buzima bwa cishwa aha.
  3. Bakora badahembwa, bakagomba kwirwanaho mu buryo bunyuranye kugirango babashe gukomeza kubaho.
  4. Abihaze bakanyuranya n’imitekereze ya nyir’ubutaka (= leta ya FPR) barabihanirwa.
  5. Babaho bafungiranye mu guhugu kuko kugisohokamo bitaborohera kuko abayobozi babirwanya bivuye inyuma.*** Abagerageje kugisohokamo bakanabishobora, amaherezo baragarurwa, haba ku ngufu, ku mayeri cyangwa ku kagambane. Mu by’ukuri nk’uko bisanzwe bizwi ku bari mu bacakara, abahinzi bo mu Rwanda bari mu mimerere y’imbohe.

 Politiki yo kwibonekeza mu mahanga

Abashishoza bashobora gutahura ko leta ya FPR nta mpuhwe ifitiye rubanda, ko ahubwo ibyo ikora byose iba igamije gushakira ubuzima n’ubukire abambari bayo, gukenesha abaturage ngo batubaka amikoro maze bakagira uruvugiro rwo kuyinenga mu bya politiki no kujijisha amahanga yongera ubuso buhizweho imbuto. Urugero, kubera ko bazi ko banki n’ibigega mpuzamahanga bishingira ku buso buhinzweho ibinyampeke bigena urwego iterambere ry’igihugu rigezeho (= indicators of development) n’abaterankunga bakabigenderaho mu gutanga inkunga y’amadevize (= foreign currecy) u Rwanda rukeneye bitavugwa, babishyiramo ingufu batitaye ku bihombo by’abaturage. Ni koko ingeso ya FPR yo kwibonekeza ku baterankuga n’imiryango mpuzamahanga ikoresheje ububeshyi bw’umwuga bwahawe akabyiniriro ko ‘gutekinika’, wahawe intebe n’ubutegetsi bwayo, uzakururira abanyarwanda amahano atari amwe.

Gutindahaza no gushwiragiza rubanda

Iyo usuzumye neza, usanga ibyemezo bifatwa na leta ya FPR mu birebana n’ubuhinzi mu Rwanda bisa n’aho bigamije gushonjesha abaturage ku bushake no kubambura ubushobozi bwo kugira icyo bageraho. Bene nk’ibyo leta ibikora ibategeka kurandurira ibihingwa ndetse no kubambura ibishanga byabatungaga cyane cyane mu gihe cy’izuba. Ibyo bituma abaturage bahora baba bashonje, bagahora bacuragira bashaka uwabafasha kubona amaramuko. Mu mimerere nk’iyo, umuturage aba ahangayikishijwe no kuba yabona amafunguro ku buryo ibindi bintu by’ingenzi, nko kuba yagira ibyo aharanira mu bya politiki cyangwa ibihereranye n’uburenganzira bw’ikiremwamuntu, nta mwanya biba bigifite mu bitekerezo bye.

Akenshi leta ya FPR ikoresha ubuhendanyi ku baturage b’abashonji maze ikabakoresha ibigamije inyungu zayo. Mu mwaka ushize wa 2015, igihe ba nyamujya iyo bijya bacicikanaga batanguranwa kugeza ibikarito n’ibiseke byuzuye amabaruwa asaba ko itegekonshinga ryahindurwa, byagaragaye ko guha umukecuru Mukagafurama Melesiyana n’abandi nka we amafaranga y’impamba, ay’icumbi n’ay’ibiribwa gusa byari bihagije kugirango bajye ku biro by’inteko ishinga amategeko gusaba ko ingingo batanazi y’itegeko nshinga yahindurwa.2 Nanone muri uwo mwaka, bamaze kwizezwa guhabwa ibyo kurya bya buri munsi mu gihe bari kuhamara, abantu biganjemo urubyiruko bemeye kujya birirwa bakanarara imbere y’Ambasade y’Ubwongereza mu Rwanda mu myigaragambyo yari igamije gushyira igitutu kuri leta y’Ubwongereza ngo Karenzi Karake wari warafashwe na polisi y’icyo gihugu arekurwe. Icyateye abantu kwibaza ariko kigatuma abatari basanzwe bamenyereye imikorere ya FPR basobanukirwa neza kurushaho ko ari leta yari yabatumye kubigenza batyo, ni uko bamwe mu bigaragambyaga bavugaga ko baje kwamagana abafaransa cyangwa abadage.3

Ni uko bigenda. Umushonji ntacyo batamukoresha igihe bamwemereye icyo arya. Ni yo mpamvu iyo FPR ishaka kugukoresha akadakorwa ibanza ikagutindahaza maze waba umaze kuzahara ikakwiyegereza mu ishusho y’umutabazi cyangwa umufatanyabikorwa ikoresheje ibyo yakunyaze; waba umaze kugarura agatege iti saba ko itegekonshinga rihinduka cyangwa vuga ko so yari imbwa akaba yarabyaye umuntu!

Politiki ya ‘nta mpuhwe’ n’ubusambo bw’isoni nke

Muri iyi minsi, mu gice kinini cy’uburasirazuba bw’igihugu haravugwa inzara yiswe Nzaramba yatumye abaturage basuhuka, abasigaye nabo bakarya rimwe ku munsi nabwo ntibahage. Abo mu karere ka Kayonza bo bivugira ko igishanga cyajyaga kibatunga mu gihe cy’izuba ryinshi leta yagifashe ikababuza kongera kugihinga.4 Ariko biravugwa ko n’i Kigali muri kapitali inzara yahageze, aho amahoteli yakira abashyitsi bitabiriye amanama mpuzamahanga abaha ibiryo bike cyane hakaba n’ubwo bishize rwose hari abatarafungura.5 Minisitiri w’ubuhinzi wasabye imbabazi mu ruhame kubera icyo kibazo,6 yakagombye no gutera indi ntambwe akagira ubutwari bwo kuzisaba n’abaturage kuko urwego ahagarariye rwagize uruhare runini mu kaga k’inzara badashobora kwivanamo mu gihe cya vuba.

Ikibabaje ariko, aho gukemura ikibazo cy’inzara no kongerera abahinzi ubushobozi, gahunda yo guhuza ubutaka no guhinga igihingwa kimwe yakenesheje abantu benshi abandi ibikoreza umuzigo w’inzara ihoraho. Bamwe mu baturage bagezweho n’ako kaga bananiwe kwihanganira kwambarira ibicocero aho bambariye inkindi maze bariyahura. Abandi bo batanze utwo bari bafite bahongera ibisambo byoherejwe na leta byari bishinzwe kubangiriza bagira ngo wenda byaca inkoni izamba cyangwa byabongereraho igihe gito cyo kwitegura ingaruka z’ako kaga. Si ko byabagendekeye kuko ibyo bisambo byagiye byimurirwa mu tundi turere gukomerezayo amahano maze ababaga barabihaye ruswa bagahomba kabiri. Abakozi bashya babaga bazanywe mu turere twabo gusimbura abagiye ntibabuze gushyira mu bikorwa uwo umugambi wo kubarimburira intoki n’ubwo batari bayobewe ko bamwe mu baturage bari barahongeye bagenzi babo bababanjirije.

Kugabiza abaturage ba Rusahuriramunduru

Indi ngaruka ikomeye umuntu atakwirengagiza, ni igihombo gikomeye cyageze ku baturage bashyizwe muri gahunda yo guhuza ubutaka no guhinga igihingwa kimwe. Urugero rufatika rwagaragaye mu turere twa Gatsibo na Gakenke, aho abahinzi babuze isoko ry’umusaruro wabo w’ibigori ku buryo bisanze nta yandi mahitamo bafite uretse kubigurisha ku giciro kiri hasi cyane ugereranyije n’igishoro bari barashyize mu kubihinga. Ibuka igihe byasakuzaga mu bitangazamakuru ko abahinzi bo muri utwo turere barira ayo kwarika kuko umusaruro wabo wabuze isoko. Aho kugira ngo abahumurize anatekereze uburyo abacuruzi bagabanyirizwa imisoro hagamijwe kuborohereza mu kugurira abaturage umusaruro wabo ku giciro gikwiye, minisitiri w’ubucuruzi n’inganda yaciye abahinzi intege ababwira ko uwabuze isoko yamuhamagara akarimushakira.7 Mu by’ukuri koko ubwo yari atanze umuti w’icyo kibazo? Ni abaturage bangahe bo mu Rwanda bashobora gutinyuka guterefona minisitiri wa leta ya FPR tuzi? Haba se hari abahinzi bashize ubwoba bakamuterefona? Niba bahari bazamenyeshe abandi bahinzi ibyavuyemo banabarangire isoko! Ubundi se kuki minisitiri atafashe urugendo ngo abasange aho bari abe ari na ho abahera iyo nama na numero bazamuterefonaho?

Icyakora, abazi gutekinika bo bungukiye muri izo ntugunda. Amatoni n’amatoni y’amafumbire yari yarateganyirijwe guteza ubuhinzi imbere yagiye agurishwa magendu ku nyungu z’abarusha abandi ubusambo n’igitugu. Biranashoboka ko hari ababoneye inyungu mu gutumiza imbuto zitujuje ubuziranenge. Ikizwi neza ni uko nta n’umwe weretswe rubanda ko yabihaniwe cyangwa yabicyahiwe ku mugaragaro. Ibyo byose byishyuwe na rubanda itazi icyo yakora kugeza ubu. Abaturage benshi barashonje ku buryo babaho babara ubukeye. Nanone ariko, iyaba byarangiriraga aho, leta ntikomeze kubikoreza indi migogoro ikubiyemo imisanzu ya FPR, imisanzu mu kigega Agaciro Development Fund, imisanzu y’uburezi butagamije ireme, n’amafaranga y’ubwisungane mu kwivuza butagamije kubungabunga amagara yabo.

NOTES

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*Gatesire Théodette ni umutegarugori wafashe icyemezo cyo gutangaza ibyo atekereza mu bya politiki nyuma y’imyaka myinshi yamaze atagira icyo abivugaho. Nk’umunyarwanda, yiyemeje gutanga umusanzu we mu gukemura ibibazo byugarije igihugu abinyujije mu nyandiko zitandukanye harimo n’iz’ubushakashatsi nk’uko yari asanzwe abikora mu rwego rwo kubungabunga ibinyabuzima. Zimwe mu nyandiko z’ubushakashatsi yakoze hamwe n’izo yagizemo uruhare zigaragara mu bitangazamakuru mpuzamahanga nko kwa Elsevier, Springer, Hindawi n’ahandi. Mbere y’uko yerekeza iy’ubuhungiro mu mpera za 2015 yari umukozi wa The Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International i Musanze.

**Uko bigaragara, abaturage nta yandi mahitamo bafite usibye kuruma gihwa kuko baramutse banze gushyira mu bikorwa izo politiki z’ubuhinzi zibahombya, amaherezo ubutaka bakoreshaga bushobora kwegurirwa ba nyamujya iyo bijya biteguye kugendera ku bushake bwa leta ya FPR, yo nyir’ubutaka. Uramutse utari uzi ko ari uko bimeze cyangwa ubishidikanyaho, reba ku cyangombwa cyawe cy’ubutaka. Urasanga handitseho ngo ‘amazezerano y’ubukode bw’ubutaka. Muby’ukuri ibyo bisobanura ko nta butaka ugifite kuko wahawe igihe runaka cyo kuba ubukodesha –ntibitandukanye cyane n’uko umuntu yatisha umurima akawuhingamo mu gihe yumvikanyeho na nyirawo. Gerageza gutekereza uko bizagenda igihe imyaka y’ubukode wahawe izaba igiye kurangira. Icyo gihe nikirangira buzasubira mu maboko ya leta ibuhe uwo ishaka. Wowe cyangwa abagukomokaho nimuramuka mubisabye, leta ishobora kwemera ubusabe bwanyu ikongera kububakodesha. Ishobora nanone kutita ku busabe bwanyu ikubuha undi cyangwa ikabwikoreshereza, wenda kuko izaba ibona habereye igikorwa yita ko ari icy’inyungu rusange. Uzabigenza ute? Nuzaba warubatsemo se uzaterura amazu yawe uyimukane cyangwa uzahebera urwaje bayasenye urebera kandi warakoresheje n’andi mikoro wari ufite wishyura inguzanyo ya banki wafashe wubaka ayo mazu?

***Mu nkuru yo mu kinyamakuru Rugali yo ku ya 19 Kamena 2016, umuyobozi w’intara y’iburasirazuba, Uwamaliya Odette, avugwaho kuba yarabujije abaturage guhungira inzara mu bihugu by’ibituranyi bifite amahahiro, maze abahitiramo gusuhukira mu tugari duhana imbibi n’utwabo nk’aho izuba ryateye ayo mapfa riva mu kagari kamwe rigasimbuka utwegeranye na ko.8 Ahubwo n’ibyo gusuhukira mu tugari bizwi neza ko leta ahagarariye ibirwanya kuko mu meza ane mbere yaho ikinyamakuru Umuseke mu nkuru yacyo yo ku ya 24 Gashyantare 2016 cyagarutse ku mvugo ye yuzuye ubushinyaguzi n’ubwishongozi, aho yasabaga abashonji kudasuhukira aho bashobora kubona ibyo kurya ahubwo bagahagarara gitore bagafatanya n’abijuse guhangana n’iyo nzara!9 Ukuri ni uko gusuhukira mu bindi bihugu bituma amahanga amenya ko leta ya FPR itindahaza nkana abaturage kandi ko iba ibeshya iyo ivuga ko u Rwanda rwihagije mu biribwa; bityo leta ya FPR ntacyo itakora ngo bahame mu Rwanda kuko itarajwe ishinga n’amagara yabo!

1Arumugam Kathiresan, 29 June 2012. Farm land use consolidation in Rwanda, assessment from the perspectives of agriculture sector. Retrieved from: http://www.minagri.gov.rw/fileadmin/user_upload/documents/agridocs/Farm_Land_Use_Consolidation_in_Rwanda.pdf (Last accessed on 18 June 2016).

2Birori Eric, 5 Kamena 2015. Gatsibo: Avuga ko ibaruwa [petition] yazaniye Inteko ari meya wayanditse aramusinyisha. Byakuwe kuri: http://www.makuruki.rw/IMIBEREHO-MYIZA/article/GATSIBO-Avuga-ko-ibaruwa-Petition-yazaniye-inteko-ari-meya-wayanditse-aramusinyisha (last accessed on 18 June 2016).

3Ijwi ry’Amerika, 26 Kamena 2015. Rwanda: Imyigaragambyo yiyama Ubwongereza. Byakuwe kuri: http://www.radiyoyacuvoa.com/a/rwanda-imyigaragambyo-yiyama-ubwongereza/2838878.html (last accessed on 18 June 2016).

4Assumpta Kaboyi, 15 Kamena 2016. Inzara iravuza ubuhuha muri Kayonza. Byakuwe kuri: http://www.radiyoyacuvoa.com/a/3377452.html (last accessed on 18 June 2016)

5Igihe, 15 Kamena 2016. Ikosa ryo kwicisha abashyitsi inzara ryasubiriye hashize iminsi 4 perezida Kagame arivuze. Byakuwe kuri: http://www.igihe.com/amakuru/u-rwanda/article/ikosa-ryo-kwicisha-abashyitsi-inzara-ryasubiriye-hashize-iminsi-4-perezida (lsat accessed on 18 June 2016).

6Girinema Philbert, 16 Kamena 2016. Minisitiri Mukeshimana yasabiye imbabazi mu ruhame ku ibura ry’amafunguro mu nama. Byakuwe kuri: http://www.igihe.com/amakuru/u-rwanda/article/minisitiri-mukeshimana-yasabye-imbabazi-ku-makosa-yatumye-abitabiriye-inama (last accessed on 18 June 2016).

7Iraguha Richard Dan, 11 Ukwakira 2015. Ababuze isoko ry’ibigori bazampamagare ndibashakire –Minisitiri Kanimba. Byakuwe kuri http://www.igihe.com./amakuru/u-rwanda/article/ababuze-isoko-bazampamagare-ndibashakire-minisitiri-kanimba (last accessed on 18 June 2016).

8Rugali, 19 Kamena 2016. Iburasirazuba: imiryango isaga ibihumbi 40 yabuze ibiribwa igobokwa n’ikigega cya leta. Byakuwe kuri: http://www.rugali.com/iburasirazubaimiryango-isaga-ibihumbi-40-yabuze-ibiribwa-igobokwa-nikigega-cya-leta/ (last accessed 24 June 2016).

9Umuseke, 24 Gashyantare 2016. Iburasirazuba: inzara iri gutuma bamwe basuhukira mu mahanga. Byakuwe kuri: http://www.umuseke.rw/iburasirazuba-inzara-iri-gutuma-bamwe-basuhukira-mu-mahanga.html (last accessed 24 June 2016).

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